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Full text of "The Open court"

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DECEMBER, 1-913 



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ZTbe ©pen Court 



A MONTHLY MAGAZINE 

H)epote^ to tbe Science ot iRellgion, tbe IRellgton of Science, an& tbc 
Bitension ot tbe IReliaious iparliament f ^ea 

Founded by EdwardC. Hegeler 




A CHRISTIAN GOOD SHEPHERD. 
From a fresco of Cyrene. (See pages 716-718.) 



TLbc ©pen Court pubUsbfna Companie 

CHICAGO 

Per copy, 10 cents (sixpence). Yearly, $r.oo (in the U.P.U., 5s. 6d). 



Entered as Second-Class Matter March 26, 1897, at the Po^OfBce at Chicago. 1)1. under Act of March 3, 1879. 
Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Company, 1913. 



$1.00 per Year 



DECEMBER, 1913 



Price, 10 Cents 



^be ©pen Court 



A MONTHLY MAGAZINE 

H>ct>ote^ to tbe Science of iRellgion, tbe iReiioton of Science, an& tbc 
Extension ot tbe IReliaious iParliament f bea 

Founded by Edward C. Hegeler 




A CHRISTIAN GOOD SHEPHERD. 
From a fresco of Cyrene. (See pages 716-718.) 



Zbc ©pen Court ^ubltebing Company 



CHICAGO 



Per copy, 10 cents (sixpence). Yearly, $1.00 (in the U.P.U., Ss. 6d.). 

Entered as Second-Class Matter March 26, 1897, at the Po^Oflice at Chicago, III. under Act of March 3, 1879. 
Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Company, 1913. 



VOL. XXVII. (No. 12) DECEMBER, 1913 NO. 691 



CONTENTS: 



PACK 



Frontispiece. Head of Christ. Leonardo da Vinci. 

The Portrayal of Christ (Illustrated). Paul Carus 705 

The Evolution of Taoist Doctrines. Leon Wieger 724 

Poems of Confucius. Translated in verse by Paul Carus 72>Z 

The Bible as a Law Book. Charles S. Lobingier 738 

The Smallest Republic in the World. Paul Carus 743 

The Fourth Dimension. Hyland Clair Kirk 747 

The Names of Nations in Chinese. Paul Carus 761 

Currents of Thought in the Orient. B. K. Roy 765 

Book Reviews and Notes 767 



A Manual 
for Beginners 



THE CHINESE LANGUAGE 
AND HOW TO LEARN IT 

By SIR WALTER HILLIER, K. C. M. 

G.-C. B. Pages, 263. Cloth 8vo. Price, $3.75 net 

A valuable book of instruction for those who wish to fit themselves for 
American diplomatic service in China. 

Sir Walter Caine Hillier is Professor of Chinese in King's College, 
London. For several years he has been officially connected with 3ie 
British diplomatic service in China. His book is officially prescribed by the 
British authorities for ths preparation of candidates for office in their 
colonies in China. 

The author says, "The present work is intended to meet the wants of 
those who think they would like to learn Chinese, but are discouraged by 
the sight of the formidable text books with which the aspiring student is 
confronted." 

"I think Hillier's book a great improvement on all that has been 
published in this direction, and I propose to recommend it to my own students 
as well as to outsiders who every now and then apply to me for advice in 
their studies." — Frederick Hirih, Columbia University, New York. 

THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING COMPANY carries a special 
h'ne of books on China, its Philosophy, Religion, Language, Literature, 
Life and Customs. Send for complete illustrated catalogue. 

^— — — — — — — — — — — ^— I II m !■ M^—^i^IBB 

THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING CO. 

CHICAGO 

Send for complete illustrated catalogue. 







HEAD OF CHRIST. 
By Leonardo da Vinci. 



Frontispiece to The Open Court. 



The Open Court 



A MONTHLY MAGAZINE 



Devoted to the Science of Religion, the Religion of Science, and 
the Extension of the Religious Parliament Idea. 



VOL. XXVII (No. 12) DECEMBER, 1913 NO. 691 

Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Company, 1913. 



THE PORTRAYAL OF CHRIST. 

BY THE EDITOR. 

THE early Christians were full of faith and enthusiasm and 
believed that everything Christian was absolutely new and that 
the new truth they had received was spiritual, not born of sense ; 
that it was quite contrary to nature, to the human in man, and 
dififerent from everything that existed or had existed in the pagan 
world ; that it was supernatural and so formed a contrast to science 
and to art. Under these circumstances the conception of Christ 
was in their opinion beyond representation, and it was even deemed 
sinful to attempt a portrayal of him who was the incarnation of 
the mystery of truth. With the progress of history this overexul- 
tant view was gradually modified. The original iconoclasm hostile 
to art sobered down and in the course of its growth Christianity 
developed a Christ type that satisfied the religious conception of 
the Christ ideal. The height of the development of Christian art 
was reached in the time of the Renaissance, but the period of de- 
termining the Christ type, the struggle of art for the permission 
to determine it, will prove both interesting and instructive ; it will 
allow us an insight into the nature of man's religious needs in art, 
and an epitome of this chapter in the history of Christian art will 
throw light on the function of the ideal in human life. 

Every religion, every age, every world-conception has ideals, 
and in its early period Christianity was not believed to stand in 
need of having its own ideal worked out in an artistic form, for 
such a conception was deemed to be pagan and idolatrous. We of 
a later generation understand how narrow was this view, and that 



706 THK OPEN COURT. 

among nations iniljued with a natural artistic instinct it could not 
be maintained forever, but it took centuries to overcome the preju- 
dice against graven or painted images, and to develop in art the 
Christ type, a portrayal of the God-man, the ideal of Christianity. 

By a great majority of the early Christians Christ was thought 
to be ungainly, because Isaiah (liii. 2) says of him: "He hath no 
form nor comeliness ; and when we shall see him, there is no beauty 
that we should desire him." This same chapter is most significant 
because it describes the expected Messiah as "a man of sorrows" and 
contains among other verses the following passage: "Surely he 
hath borne our griefs and carried our sorrows: yet we did esteem 
him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted. But he was wounded 
for ouf transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities ; the chas- 
tisement of our peace was upon him ; and with his stripes we are 
healed." 

It will be difficult to explain what the prophet meant when 
writing these lines. In the Polychrome Bible the explanation is 
offered that the prophet here personifies the ideal of the people of 
Israel, and declares that while Israel in its downtrodden condition 
appears ungainly in the eyes of the world, it has yet a great mission 
to perform. But the passage seems too personal to allow such a 
personification of the genius of the people, and it is more probable 
that here reference is made to a definite personality, who though 
not possessing striking qualities is promised to be a man helpful to 
the cause of Israel. The sufferings and humiliations to which he is 
exposed are accounted for on the ground that in standing up for 
Israel, he suffers for Israel's sake. The man referred to by the 
prophet did not attain sufficient prominence in the history of the 
nation to be remembered by name. Hence he is forgotten while the 
passage itself is preserved on account of its literary beauty as well 
as the depth of sentiment which it contains. 

The early Christians insisted on obliterating the personal ap- 
pearance of Christ because Paul (2 Cor. v. 16) expressly declares, 
"Yea, though we have known Christ after the flesh, yet now hence- 
forth we know him no more." This view is further elaborated by 
Clement of Alexandria who says that Christ scorned beautiful ap- 
pearance lest any of his hearers would be disturbed thereby in the 
admiration of the beauty of his words. And according to Origen 
Jesus had no definite form but appeared different to different people. 
Here we have a strange parallel to Buddhist views for it is stated 
in the Book of the Great Decease that "when the Buddha entered 



THE PORTRAYAL OF CHRIST. 707 

into an assembly he always before he seated himself became in color 
like unto the color of his audience and in speech like unto their 
speech."^ 

The idea that Christ was ungainly could not in the long run 
influence the development of Christian art. This anti-artistic notion 
defeated itself and produced no monuments that were preserved. 
The conception of Christ as the "man of sorrows" which was pre- 
dominant among the early Christians, had a more lasting effect, but 
the Christians of a later age, especially after Constantine's conversion, 
saw the brighter side in the personality of Christ, and so they re- 
membered the passage in Ps. xlv. 2: "Thou art fairer than the 
children of men ; grace is poured into thy lips, therefore God hath 
blessed thee forever," and under the influence of this thought, Christ 
was regarded as an ideal man, beautiful and majestic in appearance. 
This view gained more and more influence and finally determined 
the type of the Christ picture which was to become acceptable to 
Christendom. When the type was approximately agreed upon, it 
found expression in a description of the personality of Christ which 
in former centuries was assumed to be genuine but is now almost 
unanimously regarded as spurious. This document is a letter pur- 
porting to come from a certain Lentulus, a predecessor of Pontius 
Pilate, who calls himself "President of the people of Jerusalem^' 
and addresses his epistles "To the Roman Senate and People." The 
letter was probably composed in the twelfth century and reads as 
follows : 

"There has appeared in our times, and still lives, a man of great 
virtue named Christ Jesus, who is called by the Gentiles a prophet 
of truth and whom his disciples call the Son of God, raising the 
dead and healing diseases. He is a man of lofty stature, handsome, 
having a venerable countenance which the beholders can both love 
and fear. His hair has the color of a ripe hazel-nut, almost smooth 
down to the ears, and below that somewhat curling and falling down 
upon the shoulders in waves. It is of an Oriental color and is parted 
in the middle of the head after the manner of the Nazarenes. His 
forehead is smooth and very serene, and his face without any wrinkle 
or spot, and beautiful with a slight flush. His nose and mouth are 
without fault ; his beard is abundant and auburn like the hair of his 
head, not long but forked. His eyes are gray, clear and sparkling. 
He is terrible in rebuke, calm and loving in admonition, cheerful 
but preserving gravity, has never been seen to laugh but often to 
weep. Also in stature of body he is tall ; and his hands and limbs 

* Cf. the author's Gospel of Buddha, Chap. 6i. 



708 THE OPEN COURT. 

are beautiful to look upon. In speech he is grave, reserved, and 
modest ; and he is fair among the children of men," 

Another description of the personality of Jesus, probably earlier 
in its real date but much later than the pretensions of the former 
report, is preserved in a letter from John of Damascus to the Em- 
peror Theophilus, an author of the eighth century who claims to 
rely on older authorities. His description differs slightly from that 
attributed to Lentulus mainly by speaking of the hair of Jesus as 
curling and of a glossy black, his complexion as of a yellowish color 
like that of wheat (in which particular it is said he resembled his 
mother), and 'further it is stated that his eyebrows touched one 
another. 

The difference between the two descriptions is mostly verbal 
and indicates that they are expressions of the same prevalent views. 
While the Christ type noticeably converges toward the same ideal 
it is peculiar that in the latter account his complexion is described 
as "of a yellowish color like that of wheat." A comparison to wheat 
indicates a symbolism, and in this connection it is remarkable that 
in the night when the Buddha passed away he was dressed in a 
cloth of burnished gold, and that on this occasion the skin of the 
Blessed One became so exceedingly bright that the burnished cloth 
of gold appeared dull in comparison with it. The same trans- 
figuration took place also in the night the Buddha attained enlighten- 
ment, and it seems that this idea of a radiance brighter than gold in 
a transfigured saviour is based on an ancient tradition. Further we 
must bear in mind that the grain of wheat is considered in pagan 
as well as in Pauline thought (1 Cor. xv. 35-42) as a symbol of 
immortality, promising a resurrection from the grave. Ears of 
wheat figure in the Eleusinian mysteries. 

While Eusebius and St. Augustine still vigorously objected to 
the custom of making or keeping portraits of Christ which they 
deemed sheer idolatry, the need of having their Saviour visible 
before their eyes was felt more and more among the Christian 
people. It was a human want and had to be satisfied, and the old 
prejudice inherited from the Jews who would brook no likeness 
of the Deity of any kind was gradually overcome by portraits 
which were claimed to have originated in a miraculous way as not 
made with human hands. The Abgar picture of Jesus, called the 
Edessenum (the same idea being imitated later on in the Veronica 
legend) prepared Christianity to tolerate portraits of Christ. Such 
was the first phase in the development of Christ portraits, but a 



THE PORTRAYAL OF CHRIST. 709 

definite conception of the Christ face worked its way out almost 
simultaneously and independently of Edessenums and even previous 
to the Veronicas. 

Considering the prejudice which obtained in the circles of early 
Christians against art, and especially against portraits, it is not sur- 
prising that the first representatives of Christ were found not among 
Christians but among pagans, and next to the pagans among the 
heretics. Alexander Severus (c. 205-235 A. D.) is reported to have 
kept in the chapel of his palace among the busts of the sages and 
religious leaders of the world, portraits of Orpheus, Abraham, Apol- 
lonius, and Christ, but the latitude and the philosophical spirit of 
the broad-minded pagan emperor did not meet with the approval 
of the early Christians who regarded as un-Christian the very re- 
spect with which busts of great men were treated, and saw in the 
very fact of the emperor having a portrait that claimed to represent 
Jesus an evidence that he did not understand the spirit of the new 
faith. 

The next mention of portraits of Christ gives us the information 
that they were found among the gnostic sect of Carpocratians, who 
claimed that they had been copied from a portrait painted at the 
command of Pontius Pilate. We read in Irenaeus of a certain 
woman "Marcellina who came to Rome under [the episcopate of] 
Anicetus and led many people astray. They style themselves gnos- 
tics. They also possess images, some of them painted, and others 
formed from dififerent kinds of material ; while they maintain that a 
likeness of Christ was made by Pilate at that time when Jesus lived 
among men. They crown these images, and set them up along with 
the images of the philosophers of the world ; that is to say, with the 
images of Pythagoras, and Plato, and Aristotle, and the rest. They 
have also other modes of honoring these images, after the same 
manner as the Gentiles." 

We need not enter here into a discussion of the nature of the 
statue which stood at Csesarea Philippi,^ for we deem it most prob- 
able that it was a representation of Hadrian erected as an ex- 
pression of gratitude toward that popular and so-called provincial 
emperor, but we ought to mention that this monument is sometimes 
also explained as a representation of ^sculapius (Asklepios) on 
account of the inscription which according to Eusebius was "To 
the Saviour"" or "To the True Physician,"* but we must know 

* See The Open Court, for December, 1908, pp. 721-722. 

' TW aWTTJpi. 

* T<^ a\r]0ivw larpu. 



710 



THE OPEN COURT. 



that while ^sculapius was called the true physician, Emperor 

Augustus had acquired the title "Saviour" several years before the 

Christian era when the expectation of a saviour was quite common 

and the title "true physician" was often used in connection with this 

designation. 

* * * 

In the cemetery of St. Sebastian at Rome, the torso of a marble 
bust was discovered by excavators in the year 1887, which Orazio 
Marucchi has rather rashly declared to belong to a head of Christ. 
It is a pity, however, that the face itself is broken off and only the 
neck with some curls of hair falling upon the shoulders is preserved, 
which makes it very difficult to form a definite opinion. The main 




AN ALLEGED BUST OF CHRIST. 
After Marucchi. 

justification in support of Marucchi's view appears to be the style 
of the locks which are very similar to those we are accustomed to 
see in many Christ pictures of an early date. According to the 
style and treatment of the marble, this bust has been assigned to the 
fourth century or may even be of an earlier date, and if it was indeed 
meant for a Christ head it would be a relic of greatest interest as the 
oldest representation of Christ in existence. 

The mutilation of the head makes us pause. Is it not possible 
and even probable that this Christ bust (if such it is) must have 
been of pagan or gnostic origin? If that be so, the broken condition 
in which it was found would be accounted for. Pagans have never 
destroyed or injured statues of the gods of other peoples. When 



THE PORTRAYAL OF CHRIST. 



711 



the Romans waged wars on other nations, they were most careful 
not to offend foreign deities and even attempted to conciliate their 
wrath, while Christians considered it a meritorious deed to smash 
idols. 




SYMBOLS OF CHRIST ON THE GRAVE OF AEMILIA CYRIACE. 





CHRIST AS THE FISH ON THE ROOD. 





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fTfOoaooo 


iooioooll 


-o&o (Spohoo°o 0&Oo\\ 




a o 

a O o 
a O " 

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V 




CHRIST AS A LAMB. 



In a similar spirit the ancient Persians destroyed temples for 
religious motives, believing it wrong to incarcerate gods within 
walls. If Marucchi's bust was really made with the intention to 
represent Christ, we feel inclined to assume that being of heretical 



712- THE OPEN COURT. 

origin it fell into the hands of a mob of iconoclastic Christians who 
regarded the very making of images as idolatry; and in this case 
we may have before us the torso of a Christ such as existed in the 
homes of men like Severus or of some wealthy Carpocratian. 

Since it was originally idolatrous to make or to tolerate any 
Christ picture at all, the early Christians represented the Saviour 



CHRIST AS ORPHEUS IN THE CATACOMBS. 

by symbols, either under the form of the monogram of Christ, or as 
a lamb, or as a fish; or as Orpheus because the Orpheus cult in 
classical antiquity taught the immortality of the soul. 

It is strange that a pagan god could have been selected as a 
type under which to symbolize Christ, but the situation is easily 
explained if we consider that Orpheus was one of the later gods. 
He was the magic singer who, as inaugurator of the Orphean mys- 
teries, had descended into hell and (like Odysseus) had come out 



THE PORTRAYAL OF CHRIST. 713 

of it alive; he was an outsider of the old orthodox Pantheon of 
paganism; no altars were erected to him, nor was he represented 
in the form of statues to be worshiped in temples. His name was 



ORPHEUS, EURYDICE AND HERMES. 



whispered into the ears of neophytes in the Orphean mysteries, and 
his figure was chiseled on the tombs of the dead in company with 
his beloved wife Eurydice and with Hermes, the leader of souls. 



714 



THE OPEN COURT. 



There he appears, not as a powerful god but as a divine man, as a 
prophet, a poet and musician. Orpheus attempted to lead his wife 
Eurydice back to life, but he was not successful because he failed 
to fulfil the condition that he should not look back. In his anxiety 
to behold his wife he turned and saw her disappear ; yet after all he 
had the confidence that she was not dead but alive, and that the 
time would come when they would again be united. This human 
feature in the story of Orpheus made his figure dear to all. In fact 
the Orphean and other mysteries helped to prepare the way for 
Christianity, and so even the Christians felt in sympathy with the 
meaning of the legend. 

Hermes (in Latin Mercury) is mentioned in connection with the 
Orpheus legend, and we will state incidentally that he too escaped the 
general odium heaped upon the gods of the orthodox Pantheon in the 
days of early Christianity. He, psychopompos, leader of souls. 




HERMES RAISING THE DEAD. 

A gem. 

played an important part in the time of transition as representing 
the idea of resurrection. His name was identified with a spiritual 
interpretation of the old views. He represented the new thought 
at the close of classical antiquity. He was called the thrice great, 
Trismegistos, and the shepherd of men, Poimander. 

There is scarcely any antipathy to this pagan conception of 
immortality, and it was but natural that the Christians saw their 
own Saviour, Jesus Christ, in the figures of Orpheus, Odysseus 
and even in Hermes. The portrayal of Orpheus on tombstones did 
not remind them of idols. Orpheus was not worshiped with incense 
and sacrifices as the other gods before whose statues altars were 
erected. He was not considered as a demon but as one who in his own 
experience exemplified the bereavement which will come to all people 
sooner or later. He was a prototype of the Saviour who would 
bring the boon of life eternal to suffering mankind. 

Odysseus was another symbolical personality of the same type 



THE PORTRAYAL OF CHRIST. 



715 



who was remembered by the Christians. They did not represent 
his descent into Hades, however, presumably because the details 
smacked too much of the old pagan notions, but they pictured him 
as he passed by the sirens, a form of harpies or death demons. He 




ODYSSEUS PASSING THE SIRENS. 
From painting on a Greek hydra. 

could hear their voices and yet would not fall a prey to their allure- 
ments. 

It is interesting to notice that the Christian Odysseus pictures 
are imitations of pagan art, as the same motif exists in a painting 
on a hydra discovered in Vulci. The latter shows Odysseus passing 
by the Sirens, and their despair is so great that one of them throws 




ODYSSEUS PASSING THE SIRENS. 
From a Christian sarcophagus in St. CalHstus. 

herself down into the floods, just as the sphinx of CEdipus precipi- 
tates herself into the abyss when he solves her riddle. The idea of 
Odysseus as a victor over the demons of death is not made prom- 
inent in the ancient representations, although it is not entirely ab- 
sent, but in the Christian pictures of the same subject there is no 



716 



THE OPEN COURT, 



Other interest in the scene than this idea of symbolizing the attain- 
ment of immortality. It is remarkable, however, that in this pagan 
representation the prow of the ship of Odysseus is covered with a 
cloth bearing crosses, suggesting the idea that the cross as a sign 
of salvation was used as a powerful magic charm before the appear- 
ance of Christianity. 

The Christian representation of Christ as Odysseus is found 
on the sarcophagus of Tyranius, whose monogram appears in an 
empty field in front. The sculpture is well done, and we may as- 
sume that the person at the left of the monogram represents Tyra- 
nius himself. 



_ With the fading respect for ancient pagan mysteries, com- 
parisons of Christ with pagan heroes and demigods were gradually 




A CHRISTIAN GOOD SHEPHERD. 
From a fresco of Cyrene. 

abandoned, while another type, that of Christ as herdsman, became 
more and more popular. Though this simile was also inherited from 
paganism, it was more justified than Orpheus in Christianity be- 
cause of the parable in the New Testament in which Christ is com- 
pared to a good shepherd. 

The figure of Christ as the good shepherd appears on com- 
munion cups at the end of the second century, although the custom 
was still vigorously denounced by Tertullian. Yet in spite of all 
opposition it spread more and more, and in the catacombs represen- 
tations of Christ as the good shepherd were found in great numbers. 

We here reproduce a Christian good shepherd from a fresco 
of the Cyrene catacombs which is somewhat different from the cor- 



THE PORTRAYAL OF CHRIST. 



717 




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PQ I-, 

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718 



THE OPEN COURT. 



responding pictures in the Roman catacombs, because we have here 
a Greek representation which differs a httle from the Roman type. 
The good shepherd wears the paenula over his tunic a.nd is sur- 
rounded by seven big fishes which float about him in the air. Further- 
more he wears on his head a wreath of leaves. There is obviously 
a symbolic meaning in the number of the fishes and lambs, both being 
seven. 

There are numerous sarcophagi which show the figure of a 
youth carrying a lamb, and considering the fact that we have to 
deal here with a type that w^as a favorite motif in pagan days, we 
must not claim every one of them as Christian. There is in the 




FRAGMENT OF SARCOPHAGUS. 
In the Lateral!. 

Lateran, for instance, a sarcophagus which is thoroughly pagan in 
taste and exhibits not one but three shepherds carrying lambs. It 
is remarkable that the one in the center is bearded while those on 
either side are youths. The rest of the surface is filled with little 
cupids gathering grapes, pressing wine, and one of them milking 
a ewe. The crooks in their hands mark the three lamb-bearers as 
shepherds, the workmanship of the high relief is excellent and 
archeologists attribute the sarcophagus to the fourth century. 

Another sarcophagus in the Lateran of unknown date, scarcely 
later than 400 A. D., shows in the center a medallion which might 
be regarded as a Christ portrait holding in his left hand a scroll, 
and yet there is otherwise no Christian emblem but on the contrary 



THE PORTRAYAL OF CHRIST. 



719 




720 



THE OPEN COURT. 



we see before us only unquestionably pagan scenes, such as incense 
offerings made by cupids, and on the ground lies a rooster sacrificed 
as a gift to ^sculapius after death in gratitude for having been 
cured of the malady of life in the flesh. There are two genii with 
torches, one of them lowering his torch over a prostrate woman. 
May not the portrait with the scroll represent the deceased person. 




APOLLONIUS OF TYANA. 

possibly an author, a lawyer, or an orator? Or may we not have 
here a pagan teacher like Apollonius who was portrayed in a similar 
way ? Who can tell ! 

On top of this obviously pagan sarcophagus there stands an- 
other marble relief of the same character. Two flying cupids hold 
up a wreath encircling a portrait and on either side appears the 
group of Cupid and Psyche. 




SARCOPHAGUS ATTRIBUTED TO THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY. 
In the Lateran. 

The Lateran contains also sarcophagi which bear a more or 
less decidedly Christian character. There is one which exhibits 
in a medallionlike shell the portraits of the couple for whom the 
sarcophagus was made. On either side is a shepherd boy, one 
leaning on an inverted crook and the other bearing a lamb, while 
a dog is looking up affectionately. If it is Christian, we have no 
definite proof, and being a mere fragment we are unable to deter- 



THE PORTRAYAL OF CHRIST. 



721 



mine the date. The fact that there are two shepherds my be ad- 
duced in favor of the theory that we have before us a rustic scene 
introduced as a mere ornament or to indicate the delight which 
the owner took in pastoral life. 

Another sarcophagus of a much later date (for it is commonly 
assumed to belong to the end of the thirteenth century) shows the 
good shepherd without a crook standing in the center and the two 
deceased persons, husband and wife, appear in family groups on 
either side. On the left the man is reading from a scroll and dis- 
cussing the contents with two friends, while his wife in the position 




THE GOOD SHEPHERD OF THE LATERAN, 



of an orante is standing with two women who seem to bid her 
goodbye. 

It is thought that gold-bottomed glasses (fondi d'oro) were not 
manufactured later than in the 4th century, and many can be dated in 
the third. They represent subjects alluded to in passages of contem- 
poraneous ecclesiastical literature, and since large numbers of them 
have been discovered in the catacombs which were not used after the 
year 401, we are justified in assigning them mainly to the fourth 
century. One interesting specimen bears the inscription pie seses, 
"Oh pious man, thou shalt live." It shows Jesus as the beardless 
good shepherd standing on a mound, on his right hand Paul and 



722 



THE OPEN COURT. 



on his left Peter with the cross. Underneath, the Christ idea is 
represented by a lamb standing on a hill from which four rivers 
are flowing. The apostles are represented as six sheep, and the 
locality is indicated by the inscription to be in the neighborhood of 
Jerusalem. The same conception of Christ as the good shepherd 
appears in reliefs on lamps and on sarcophagi, and also in the 




A GOOD SHEPHERD OF THE FOURTH CENTURY. 
In the Vatican Library. 

shape of statues. The most beautiful among these is the so-called 
statuette of the good shepherd now preserved in the Lateran. 

The pagan origin of this symbol cannot be doubted. Hermes, 
one of the pagan forerunners of the Christ ideal, as we have mentioned 
above, is called Poimander, "shepherd of men," and the picture of 
a shepherd presumably without any reference to religion occurs 
several times simply as an idyllic picture, a motif of country life. 
In a fresco originally in the Nasp catacombs of pre-Christian Rome, 



THE PORTRAYAL OF CHRIST. 



723 



there is a series of pastoral scenes representing the four seasons. 
Spring is illustrated as a girl carrying a basket of flowers while 
a shepherd with his stafif in one hand holds with the other a goat 
lying across his shoulders. His attitude is very similar to that typ- 
ical of the good shepherd, but he is nude, whereas Christian pictures 
show the good shepherd always clad in a tunic. ^ 

Visitors to Rome will find a lamb-bearing youth represented in 
a fresco painted on the wall of the triclinium, or dining-room, of 
Livia, the wife of Augustus. The scene pictures a sacrifice and in 
the background stands a youth in a white tunic carrying a lamb to 
be offered on the altar. 

In this connection we will remind the reader of the interesting 
fact that the figure of the good shepherd appears on the Buddhist 
sculptures at Gandhara where it serves a purely ornamental purpose. 
The type had been carried thither by the Greek artists imported 
during the middle of the second century B. C. by the Yavana Kings, 
the Greek conquerors of the Punjab who, walking in the footprints 
of Alexander the Great, built up a Greco-Indian empire. The Bud- 
dhist good shepherd is dressed like his Christian parallel and holds 
the lamb in the same way ; yet the former is without any doubt the 
older by two centuries. 

Here is a straw in the wind that proves how much humanity 
all over the world is indebted to ancient Greece ; for consider that 
the same artists who carried the ideal of a good shepherd eastward 
to Gandhara produced also the prototype of the Buddha who was 
modeled in his original form after the Greek conception of Apollo." 

[to be continued.] 

^ The writer regrets that he has not been able to find any illustration of 
this goatherd of the catacombs of the gens Naso. He would be grateful to 
any one who would point out to him where such a reproduction can be found. 
These catacombs lie on the Via Appia, but some of their most remarkable 
antiquities have been removed. (Dne sarcophagus has been taken to the 
Vatican Museum, and the custodian of these catacombs,_ while showing the 
walls of the family chapel where the frescoes had been, informed the author 
that they too had' been transferred to some part of the Vatican collections ; 
but no trace of them could be found there. , 

^An illustration of the Buddha of Gandhara will be found in The Open 

Court of October, 1913, page 611. In the same number (page 614) there is 

also an illustration of the Buddhist lamb-bearer on a piece of Gandhara 
sculpture representing the Buddhist nativity. 



THE EVOLUTION OF TAOIST DOCTRINES/ 



BY LEON WIEGER. 

THE early fathers of Taoism, Lao-tze, Lieh-tze, and Chwang- 
tze, who Hved from the fifth to the fourth century B. C, were 
philosophers and controversialists. Without denying the existence 
of a Lord on High as ancient as China,- without opposing the paltry 
notions of the "Grand Plan",^ they looked farther and higher for the 
origin of all things. Their researches tend practically toward a 
naturalistic pantheism obviously inspired by contemporary Indian 
systems.* 

A unique First Principle, at first concentrated and inactive, 
begins to emanate, to produce. In its passive aspect, it is called 
Tao ; in its active aspect, Teh.^ By its emanation the Principle 
created heaven, the earth and the air between them, a trinity from 
which all beings are brought forth ; or rather a duality, heaven and 
earth acting and reacting as a pair, the air between serving as mate- 

^ [Translated from the preface of the first volume (Le Canon taoiste) of 
the author's work, Taoisme (1911) by Lydia G. Robinson. For a review of 
this work see p. 767.] 

* The ancient Chinese books say that he governs the world but they do not 
say that he created it. Hence the question of origin remained open. 

*A document of 1122 B .C. See my Textes philosophiques, p. 25. [Cf. 
Carus, Chinese Philosophy, pp. 21-24.] 

* Such as the Upanishads. See my Bouddhisme Chinois, Vol. I, Intro- 
duction, pp. 40-58. Complete identity with India and an evident innovation in 
China. Modern Chinese critics are unanimous in stating that Taoism did not 
originate in ancient Chinese philosophy but was elaborated by the chroniclers 
who were the custodians of national and foreign documents. The assertion 
is dated far back. It is written in all characters in the bibhographical Index 
of the first Han dynasty. This text dates from the first century before the 
Christian era. 

' I have often been asked if the two Chinese terms Tao and Teh, whose 
meaning in the Taoist sense is not natural but acquired, might not have been 
originally the transliteration of the Sanskrit words Tat and Tyad, primary 
being and secondary beings, being and what remains. I would see in Lao-tze 
more than a Sanskritism. 



THE EVOLUTION OF TAOIST DOCTRINES. 725 

rial.® The Principle dwells and operates in all. It does not think 
but is thought. It does not ordain but it is law. From it emanates 
with its being the destiny of every being. In nature which has 
originated from the Principle, there are certain special features like 
the poles of its power of emanation. From heaven emanates the 
fecundating (male) quality, from earth the productive (female) 
quality. Special effluvia proceed from the stars, the celestial anodes, 
and from the mountains, the terrestrial cathodes. These forces are 
beneficent when they are normal, that is, when they are developed 
in the direction impressed on the cosmos by the Principle. They are 
harmful when they are abnormal, misdirected, deflected.''^ 

In every being, whether mineral, vegetable, animal or man, 
there is a soul which partakes of the universal Principle as the 
principle of its particular nature and special properties. As it 
grows older each soul rises higher, its virtue increases to a higher 
degree. The soul of an old object acquires a certain reason; the 
soul of an old tree acts in a certain direction ; the soul of an old 
animal thinks almost like a man ; the soul of an old man fathoms 
space and time. These steps of progress are accomplished by ac- 
quired experience, by stored-up knowledge. Souls that have learned 
nothing return at death into the great unknowing All ; those that 
have learned something transmigrate in accordance with their ac- 
quired knowledge. Human souls that have attained great wisdom 
can exist for a time in a garment of ethereal substance before their 
reincarnation. Those that have learned the great secret that all is 
one, tat-tvam, are spared metempsychosis and return into the con- 
scious Principle, 

Since everything is one there is no specific distinction between 
good and evil. This identity of contraries is taught by the Taoist 
fathers with an insistence bordering on fanaticism. Hence they 
do not teach to do good and to avoid evil, for they recognize neither 
good nor evil. In their eyes man has but one great duty, and that 
is to unite himself to the primordial Principle of which he is a 
temporary end, to desire what the Principle desires and to do what 
the Principle does. 

• I regret to say that certain extremists see a revelation of the trinity in 
the text of Lao-tze, "one begets two, two begets three, three begets all things," 
the meaning of which is that the Principle, at first motionless (one), next by 
alternations of movement and rest (two), produced heaven and earth, and 
air-substance (three), from which all beings have been derived. 

^ Electricity, currents, waves, vibrations, ions, radio-activity ; mesmerism, 
hypnotism, effects at a distance, telepathy, almost all the lucubrations of occul- 
tists and spiritists — all these things appear perfectly natural to the Taoists ; to 
them the world is full of emanating virtues. 



726 THE OPEN COURT. 

From this doctrine follow three practical consequences : 

1. Since the Principle made him a thinking creature, man ought 
to think as much as possible — to meditate, to investigate ; not in 
order to acquire manifold and varied knowledge but in order to ap- 
propriate in the most intense degree the unique cosmic knowledge 
that he is one with the Principle, that he is the Principle, that every- 
thing is the Principle, that it is therefore sufficient to concentrate 
his attention upon this center, ignoring points in the periphery — 
individuals and details. 

2. Since the Principle has invested him with a corporeal matrix 
and has determined a fixed number of years for his life, man ought 
so to act that his body will live to the end of this number of years, 
that death will not come before its time because of premature waste 
of the body. Otherwise his abortive soul will descend in the ladder, 
will become a monster or will even return into the unthinking All. 
Hence arises the Taoists' hygienic cult, their practical interest in 
questions relating to habits and diet, their interest in medicine and 
pharmacy. Hence also arises the Taoist ethics which is the hygiene 
of the soul : the suppression of the passions because they consume ; 
continence and abstinence because luxury and gormandizing are 
destructive f especially prohibition of ambition and of attempts at 
success because nothing is more corrosive. With this understand- 
ing, in the faith of his identity with the Principle, with the conscious- 
ness that he has neither wearied his soul nor worn out his body and 
that therefore he has nothing with which to reproach himself, the 
Taoist awaits the end of his years and dies in an unprecedented 
peace without changing expression, as the texts say. For him there 
is no fear of death nor any terror in the hereafter. To die is to 
change his worn-out garment for a new one which will be better. 

3. Since the Principle determines the course of all beings it is 
man's duty not to interfere with anything ; not to put his finger into 
the machinery, into the gearing ; to attend to his own business and 
not to require anything of any one ; to let the universe go its way, 
this fly-wheel which the Principle keeps in motion." The Taoist 

* A circumstance which at first sight seems most singular is that many cele- 
brated Taoists though very moderate eaters were heavy drinkers. This is 
because in their opinion alcohol stimulates the vital energy, and drunkenness 
is no disadvantage. Therefore to drink conforms to their theory, and they 
put it in practice whenever they can. 

" The formula for this non-interference with the decrees of the Principle 
is wu-wei which is badly translated by "not-doing." The meaning is to do 
nothing contrary to what is foreordained. Many Taoist terms ought to be 
translated in the Taoist sense to avoid misinterpretation ; thus wu is not the 
denial of being, but the denial of (bodily) form, the absence of definite (con- 
crete) form, etc. 



THE EVOLUTION OF TAOIST DOCTRINES. 727 

looks upon its rotation with impassive eye. For him nothing can 
happen wrong. The point of the rim which now is at the bottom 
will soon be on top. Necessary alternations, controlled by the Prin- 
ciple and governed by the yifi yang numbers and phases, must 
succeed each other. They must be given free course since this in- 
stability is according to law. So much the worse for inventors of 
systems, moralists, politicians, idealists and Utopists of every kind. 
Country, government, progress, ideals, plans, projects, formulas, — 
the Taoist smiles at all these things. Let matters go then as they 
can. It is the number, it is the period, it is the Principle which 
makes them go on in this way. Mad indeed would be the man who 
would struggle to make them go in the opposite direction. His 
failure is foreordained. The worst interference with the normal 
march of the universe is war, for it puts an end to lives before the 
appointed time and against the will of the Principle. 

The Taoist fathers were never aggressive, because impassioned 
controversy would have used up their soul and body. For their 
ordinary contemporaries they had a compassionate disdain which is 
often amusing. Confucius however was singled out to be treated 
by them with irony and scorn because they saw in him a man of 
artificial ritual and conventional virtue, the destroyer of what is 
natural and an opponent of the Principle. Lao-tze refuted the 
teachings of the Master, without calling him by name. Lieh-tze 
undertook to do so more fundamentally, but Chwang-tze made the 
poor sage, who had then been dead for about one hundred and 
fifty years, his favorite target. The pages in which he turns him 
round and round, rolls him over, converts him, makes him abjure 
his past errors and teach Taoism, count among the most spirited 
which Chinese literature has produced.^^ What is more, they are 
very important because they show what were the positions of the 
school of Confucius and the opposing schools a century after his 
death, the strength and weakness of both sides. 

These philosophers had successors, pantheists like themselves, 
and a few followers ; but not many, for only intellectual minds arrive 
at the heights of such abstruse theories. Then Taoism commenced 
to develop in a more practical sense from the time of the fathers 
themselves to the fourth century A. D. This evolution was rapid 
during the third century. About the second century before the 
Christian era it resulted in a sort of theism,^^ the principal features 

" See Taoisme, Vol. II, "Les Peres du systeme taoiste." 

" Since Lao-tze, Lieh-tze and Chwang-tze never denied the existence of 
the Lord on High, were they not also theists? I do not think so. They pre- 



728 



THE OPEN COURT. 



of which are as follows: The emanations (shan) of nature were 
personified and heaven and earth became peopled with non-human 
transcendent beings varying in degrees of intelligence and power.^- 




Im. 



V..v^l^V 



57^ 



'^Mm:^^i 



THE GENIUS OF THE YELLOW RIVER. 
Illustration on the cover of Dr. Wieger's Taoisme, Vol. I. 



tended so strongly to have nothing to do with him, to pass him by in silence, 
that I strongly suspect their faith in his existence. It is true they never denied 
him, but they never invoked anything but the Principle. Practically they were 
pantheists. 

"A text of the year 211 B. C. relates that a slight emanation shan of a 



THE EVOLUTION OF TAOIST DOCTRINES. 729 

The Chan, men who rose into the air in full daylight before the eyes 
of large numbers of spectators with their bodies entirely etherealized 
in life, moved at will in space and inhabited the heavenly bodies, 
especially those forming the square of the Great Bear and the 
constellations around the poles. Here they formed the court of the 
Lord on High who since the year 113 was called the Supreme One. 
The Taoist books do not contain biographies of these beings. Men- 
tion is made of their apotheosis as if it were not to be contradicted. 
Their life would last, like that of the Indian deva, for a long time, 
for a cosmic period and even more, but not for always. Only the 
Supreme One survives every cataclysm and exists always un- 
changed.^^ 

The sages (shang) form a small special group among the chan. 
They were scholars when on earth and are now the chiefs of the 
polar Elysium. The many Taoist ascetics retired into the fine loca- 
tions of the mountains to live there in peace ; they were exalted men 
(hsien), or men of the mountain, the equivalent of the Indian forest- 
dwellers^* who did not carry asceticism to the extreme of complete 
etherealization but developed in themselves the supernatural child, 
the new man. These saints depart this life by the division of the 
body ; that is to say, one day the child escapes leaving an empty 
skin like the shell of cicada or the cocoon of a chrysalis. Then it 
strolls on the high mountains or dwells in happy isles — delivered 
from the grosser needs of nature, yet eating, drinking and even be- 
coming intoxicated on occasion, continuing to exist during long 
centuries, but not forever, and less long a time than the chan}^ 

mountain or river has knowledge only to the end of the year, but more im- 
portant emanations are conscious for a longer time, each according to its 
degree. 

^ According to the Taoist definition the Supreme One is the shan of 
heaven, emanated from the ch'i of heaven in its totality. Fundamentally 
therefore it is of the same nature as the other shan, and I am told that I 
should call Taoism a polytheism and not a theism. I answer that whatever 
is the substance which constitutes his being, the Taoists ascribe to the Supreme 
One attributes which belong only to him and distinguish him from all the 
other shan sufficiently to make him the supreme God of a theism. He alone 
lives eternally while others perish in the destruction of the cosmos. He alone 
is ruler of the universe and of men. Theoretically he is beneath the Tao, the 
universal predetermination and cosmic fate; but practically this subordination 
is ignored, in fact does not exist; and the Supreme One in the opinion of 
believers is the chief of the universe, omnipotent and omniscient. 

" See my Bouddhisme chinois. Vol. I, p. 53. 

" Shan, chan, hsien : since no western term can render exactly the nature 
of these exclusively Taoist beings, I am obliged to my great regret to retain 
the Chinese terms. The word "spirit" does not primarily fit any of these 
categories. Their most ethereal members still bear some sheath of rarified 
matter. Neither primitive Taoism, nor Buddhism, nor Confucianism had 
any notion of spiritual substance, of pure spirit apart from matter. 



730 THE OPEN COURT. 

An army of Lei-Kung, genii of thunder, returning to the class 
of the sJian, is accused of conceaHng incorrigibly wicked men in the 
name of the Supreme One. Comparison of the texts leaves no doubt 
of the Indian origin of these avengers, modeled after the Maruts, 
the sons of Rudra. This is the first form of penal sanction. There 
is not yet any trace of a hell or of punishment after death. It is not 
until later from contact with Yogism and Buddhism, that the "long 
night" appears, the "infernal city" with its tribunals,^*' etc. 

To reach the two degrees of transcendental existence accessible 
to man, those of chan and hsien — the complete etherealization or 
the endogenesis of the child which is to survive — it is necessary to 
practise the Taoist moral and physical dietetics. The effects of this 
diet are strengthened by the absorption of the essence of yin and 
yang. From these ideas first arise very complicated systems of 
nourishment, theories of cold and heat, theories and systems whose 
popularization has made the Chinese, even those who are not Taoists, 
a nation of hypochondriacs. From the same ideas originate the 
practices of kinesitherapy, mechanotherapy and massage, intended 
to make the vital spirit circulate in the body, to loosen its knots (sic !) 
to free from obstructions and to expel injurious fluids from the 
organism. From the desire to assimilate the cosmic essence arises 
the cure by means of light, phototherapy, the exposure of the nude 
body to the solar light, the quintessence of the yang, and to the 
lunar light, the quintessence of the yin. 

From the same desire also arises the Taoist serotherapy,^^ the 
theory of which is as follows : When the air, which is the substratum 
of every formation, is assimilated by the organism by being intro- 
duced under pressure and retained by force, it repairs the bodily 
waste, and its excess united with the sperm forms the child by 
condensation. From this theory arose daily exercises analogous to 
those of the June bug, which in preparing to take its flight stores 
up air in its trachea with a pumplike motion. The devotees con- 
tinue these exercises for hours with conviction. They are very 
wearisome, especially the prolonged holding of the breath after the 
manner of ocean divers. 

From the same desire arises what has been called Taoist al- 
chemy, which consists in assimilating the quintessence of the yin 
and the yang. The light of the moon is one form of the quintessence 
of the yin and the dew is another. Not being acquainted with the 
laws which regulate evaporation and condensation, the ancient Chi- 

" See my Bouddhisme chinois, Vol. I, pp. 76, 84, 93. 
" See my Bouddhisme chinois, Vol. I, pp. 77 ff. 



THE EVOLUTION OF TAOIST DOCTRINES. 731 

nese thought that dew is distilled by the moon. The Taoists gath- 
ered this excretion of the orb of night on a metal platter as an easy 
means of assimilating the quintessence of the yin. This harvest 
was a part of every Taoist ceremony. Other substances also are 
of the quintessence of the concrete yin, for instance, silver, jade, 
pearls, coral and yellow amber. The Taoists had a cult for these 
substances also, but as they were not within the range of all purses, 
they were never eaten in their pulverized form except by the privi- 
leged few. 

The light of the sun is one form of the quintessence of the 
yang ; the problem was to find an eatable form of this quintessence. 
Of the two common compounds sulphur and gold, the Chinese look 
upon sulphur as a violent poison,^^ while gold in its metallic form 
can not be assimilated. Taoist alchemy grew from the desire to make 
sulphur and gold edible. Now cinnabar (sulphuret of mercury) is 
very abundant in China. When decomposed by heat it is seen to 
consist of sulphur and mercury. The mercury is yin, but the com- 
pound, as is testified by its red color, is yang and is not poisonous. 
In default of native sulphur therefore cinnabar was taken as an 
elixir of life. That cinnabar which had decomposed and recomposed 
many times was considered the most yang of all, the transcendent 
cinnabar, the virtue of fire having still further enhanced its proper- 
ties. Hence arose the mystical series of the nine rotations, the nine 
times nine days of heating, etc. 

When lead containing silver and arsenic produced orpiment 
upon manipulation, they thought they had found an edible form of 
gold. But when those who ate it died, few others were willing to 
risk this cure, whereas there were many who partook of cinnabar 
for many centuries. Taoist alchemy deliberately proceeded no 
farther than this. A few individuals were led by curiosity into 
chemical, mineral, vegetable and even animal researches, thus bring- 
ing upon themselves the reproaches of their colleagues and ill usage 
from government officials. There is no need to dwell upon other 
drugs dear to candidates for immortality : seeds from evergreen 
cypress, which lived an indefinite period ; pachyma cocos, a giant 
fungus clinging to the roots of the cypress and regarded as ex- 
tracting its quintessence ; a branching parasitic mushroom, a cryp- 
togamous plant of spontaneous growth (its spores were unknown 

" Little or no sulphur was to be found in ancient China, but a great deal 
of poisonous orpiment. The confusion of these two substances would have 
given rise to this mistaken belief. 



732 THE OPEN COURT. 

to the Taoist sages) and consequently thought to be a cosmic com- 
pound. 

Finally, since the Taoists thought that rotations of nature were 
the basis of all things, they appropriated and developed in a quasi- 
scientific fashion the ancient Chinese systems of divining these revo- 
lutions as means of foretelling the future. They monopolized 
everything — the figures of Huang-Ti and of Yii, the basis of num- 
bers ;^* the diagrams of Fuh Hi and the Book of Changes in which 
they were developed ; the speculations of Tseu-yen on the rotation 
of the five elements. These proceedings could be carried on by the 
common people since no special skill was required of the operator. 

Upon the superior man, the Taoist overman, his superiority 
conferred an extraordinary power of intellectual vision. Placed 
above the rest, he could see farther into the unknown, into space, 
into the future. Biographies of celebrated Taoists are full of pre- 
dictions, historically gathered, often verified, and sometimes very 
interesting. This far-seeing vision requires a profound concentra- 
tion, a sort of hypnosis or ecstacy, often described in Taoist books. 
The use of a mirror sometimes helped it. A very curious treatise ex- 
plains how a mirror, gazed at fixedly for a long time with the intense 
will to see in it what one is looking for, will end by giving in its 
reflection the desired solution. The mirror serves also to disclose 
the emanations of places, things, and persons invisible to the naked 
eye. Other means of divination were used by the Taoists, such as 
the movements of the smoke rising from incense, the flight or song 
of birds, and the changing aspect of the clouds. All these were 
considered to be the manifestations of the cosmos, of the Principle, 
without any intervention of supernatural beings. 

" [See Carus, Chinese Philosophy, pp. 4-5.] 



POEMS OF CONFUCIUS. 

TRANSLATED IN VERSE BY PAUL CARUS. 

CONFUCIUS from time to time gave expression to his senti- 
ments in song, and there are three poems recorded in the stone- 
engraved inscriptions of the temple of Confucius at Kii Fu all of 
which set forth his disappointment in life. After he became min- 
ister of justice in his native state Lu, he found out that the duke 
did not possess the seriousness necessary for the responsibilities of 
his position, and so Confucius resigned. Some time afterwards the 
duke was expelled by a usurper and had to flee to the neighboring 
state of Wei. Confucius followed his exiled sovereign, and when 
the usurper Ji Kong Ts' invited him to return he did not, because the 
sage would accept no favors from a man who had seized the govern- 
ment by unjust means. But later on when the usurper had died, 
Confucius returned to Lu. 

We quote the following verses from inscriptions engraved on 
stone as they have been published and edited by the next to the 
last representative of the Confucian family ; our own explanatory 
comments are inserted as footnotes or in brackets. 

THE SONG ON TAI SAN.i 

After Confucius had moved to Wei, Ji Kong Ts' sent his compli- 
ments [and invited him] to come back to Lu. Confucius refused the 
offer. Being convinced that if he accepted the high charge it would 
only end in disappointment, he composed the "Song of the Moun- 
tain" : 

"Would rise to the lofty peak 
Where cliffs and ravines debar. 
So truth^ though ever near 

* Tai San is the name of a peak in Lu. It means literally "the huge moun- 
tain" and is situated between Lu and Wei. 

*The original reads "Tao." 



734 THE OPEN COURT, 

Is to the seeker far. 
How wearisome^ to me 
Those tangling* mazes are. 

"I sigh and look around, 
The summit in full view ; 
With woodlands it is crowned 
And sandy patches too, 
And there stretch all around 
The highlands of Lian Fu. 
Thickets of thorns prevent 
Any ascent. 
No axe is here 
A path to clear ; 
The higher we are going 
The worse the briars are growing. 
I chant and cry. 
And while I sigh 
My tears'"* are freely flowing." 

THE ORCHID IN THE GRASS. 

[Comparing the sage to the orchid as a flower of rare beauty, 
Confucius thinks that men of a superior character should live in the 
company of kings and not be thrown among the vulgar people like 
the orchids that grow by the wayside.] 

Confucius on his way back to Lu from Wei stopped in a valley 
and saw orchids growing by the wayside, and said "Orchids should 
be royalty's fragrance, but here they are mixed up with common 
herbs." Then he stopped the car, took his lute, played on it and 
composed the song of the orchid. 

"So gently blow the valley breezes 

With drizzling mist and rain. 
And homeward bound a stranger tarries 

With friends in a desert domain. 
Blue heaven above ! for all his worth 
Is there no place for him on earth ? 

^ That is to say, "An attempt to climb the height would be a failure and 
leave me wearied and footsore." 

*The original reads "without return," which means "mazes which allow 
no exit." 

"The original here is too drastic for English taste in poetry; it reads "the 
tears are flowing and the nose is running." 



POEMS OF CONFUCIUS. 735 

"Through all the countries did he roam 
Yet found he no enduring home. 
Worldlings are stupid and low, 
They naught of sages know. 
So swiftly years and days pass by, 
And soon old age is drawing nigh." 

Then Confucius went back to Lu. 

THE CRAZY MAN'S JINGLE. 

Jay Yii, the crazy man of Ts'u, passed by Confucius singing: 

"Oh Phoenix, oh Phoenix, thy virtue is pinched ! 
The bygone is ended and cannot be mended : 
But truly the future can still be clinched. 
Cease, ah ! continue not ! 
For statesmen to-day are a dangerous lot." 

Confucius dismounted anxious to talk with him ; but he [Jay 
Yii] hurried away and escaped, so Confucius could not talk with 
him. 

[This strange piece of tradition seems to characterize pretty 
faithfully the situation in which Confucius found himself in his 
advanced age. A man ensouled with a great ideal, he was pos- 
sessed of the idea that in order to realize his aspirations he ought to 
be a minister of state and introduce personally his proposed reform. 
But in this he lamentably failed. He went from court to court and 
was nowhere acceptable. It is natural that sovereigns would not 
want a councilor who was constantly preaching morality ; and even 
if some sovereign would have liked to engage him, then the ministers 
or other advisers would be opposed to the appointment ; so he found 
himself in the undignified position of offering virtue only to find 
out that there was no demand for it. A well-intentioned man on the 
throne was certainly a rare thing, and yet the fault does not lie en- 
tirely with Chinese royalty at the time of Confucius, for even good 
honest rulers would hesitate to engage such a moralizer as he. A 
man with good intentions has a conscience of his own and need not 
engage a man to supply him with rules of conduct. It is true that 
once in his life Confucius held the position of minister of justice 
in the state of Lu, and it is reported that his administration was 
very successful ; nevertheless he held this ofiice only for a short time 
and did not affect any lasting reform, and that was perhaps best for 



736 THE OPEN COURT. 

his ideals. We must bear in mind that if Confucius had really had 
the chance to give his reform a fair trial, he would probably have 
found out by experience that no reform can be introduced through 
the government by enforcing rules of propriety. For the short span 
of his official activity we possess only the glowing description of his 
disciples ; the other side, how he came to lose his position as a min- 
ister of state in the service of the duke of Lu, has not been recorded. 
At any rate while for Confucius himself his fate was tragic, we can 
understand that it could scarcely be otherwise. A fair trial would 
probably have proved a failure and might have spoiled all the credit 
of Confucianism among the coming generation. Nevertheless, in 
spite of his disappointments his life was not in vain, for the ideal 
he represented was of vital significance. 

Ideals are superhuman factors, and superhuman factors can 
not be represented by limited individuals ; they must assume shape 
in mythological persons, in a God or a God-man, a hero, or some 
other supernatural figure, in idealized persons of the distant past 
who have shaken ofif their mortal coil with all their human failings. 
Thus it came to pass, thanks to the enthusiasm which the master 
had instilled into his disciples, that the Confucian ideal had a great 
future. After his death Confucius came into his own. When the 
personal element was removed his aspirations found recognition.] 

THE SWAN SONG. 
When Confucius fell sick, Ts' Kong visited him. Confucius 
dragging himself along on his staff walked back and forth at the 
gate, and he sang these words : 

"Pluge mountains wear away 

Alas! 
The strongest beams decay. 

Alas! 
And the sage like grass 
Withers. Alas !" 

Tz' Kong heard this song and said : 

"If the huge mountain crumbles, say 
Where with mine eyne I'll wend? 
If the strong beams will rot away 
On what shall I depend? 
And if the sage withers like grass 
From whom shall I then learn? Alas!" 



POEMS OF CONFUCIUS. 737 

Having entered the house, Confucius said : "Ts' Kong, why 
come you so late? The house of Hia [2205-1818 B. C] placed the 
coffin on the east stairs. The house of Yin [= Shang, 1766-1122, 
since 1401 called Yin] near the two pillars. I belong to the house 
of Yin and last night I dreamed that I sat between the two pillars. 
At present there is no bright ruler in the world who would employ 
me. I probably will die soon." 

Confucius died after seven davs. 



THE BIBLE AS A LAW BOOK.^ 

BY CHARLES S. LOBINGIER, 

I THINK I may safely trust my friends of the clerical profession 
to do full justice, upon such an occasion as this, to the Bible as 
a source of religious instruction. For a layman like myself it would 
seem far more appropriate to dwell upon such uses of the great 
book as are not strictly religious. And these are many. 

It has been well said that the Bible contains the truest history, 
the profoundest philosophy, and the sublimest poetry. Viewed as 
mere literature it would be hard to find its equal among the world's 
output of written song. As a whole it has scarcely a rival save in 
Greek literature which is in all things exceptional. Our own majes- 
tic stream of English verse finds one of its chief sources in that other 
priceless possession of the race — the English Bible. From Chaucer 
to Tennyson its influence has been dominant and two of the foremost 
English essayists of the nineteenth century — Carlyle and Ruskin — 
were profuse in acknowledgment of their literary indebtedness to 
the Bible. Of the last named an admirer has said: 

"Chapter by chapter, verse by verse, the little boy (Ruskin), 
like Carlyle before him, read the Bible over and over before his 
strict and devoted mother. Always reverent and docile in tem- 
perament, he seems to have followed with entire obedience, if 
sometimes with weariness, her minutely rigid method. Many long 
passages were learned by rote if not by heart, till his whole nature 
became steeped in the language and spirit of that mighty book 
which has for centuries nurtured the noblest English souls. 'And 
truly,' he says, 'though I have picked up the elements of a little 
further knowledge in mathematics, meteorology, and the like, in 

' Address of the Hon. C. S. Lobingier, Judge of the Court of First Instance 
of the PhiHppines, on the occasion of the formal opening of the new "Bible 
House" of the British and Foreign Bible Society at Manila, P. I., Jan. 9. 1913. 



THE BIBEL AS A LAW BOOK. 739 

after life, and owe not a little to the teaching of other people, this 
maternal installation of my mind in that property of chapters I count 
very confidently the most precious, and, on the whole, the one essen- 
tial part of all my education. "- 

But it is not alone to the Bible as literature that I would here 
draw attention. That also can be better treated by others. The 
jurist who studies well this work in time comes to see in it a great 
law book. Such it was primarily and fundamentally to the ancient 
Hebrews. They, including the Great Teacher himself, referred to 
their scriptures as "The Lazv and the Prophets." The legal idea 
came first and predominated over the literary. The Old Testament, 
indeed, and especially the Pentateuch, was a rich repository of 
national jurisprudence. It was "the law of the Lord" which was 
"perfect, converting the soul."^ "Blessed was the man whose de- 
light was in the law of the Lord and in that law did he meditate 
day and night."* 

It is true that the Hebrews in the course of their evolution 
produced other law books than the Torah — the Talmud, the Mishna 
and Gemara, and the Zohar. But the Old Testament, "the Law 
and the Prophets," was the law book of their golden age. It reflects 
and preserves for us Jewish legal institutions in their chrysalis and 
is consequently one of the rare sources for the study of comparative 
law. These tales of the patriarchs that so charmed our childish 
minds, like Jacob's seven years of service for Rachel, are typical 
of a universal customary law and find their counterparts in cus- 
toms that prevail right before our eyes among the native inhabi- 
tants of these fair islands.^ And this is one of the values of the Old 
Testament which deepens with age. No higher criticism has ever 
lessened its importance as a source of juridical history. Translation 
of other "Sacred Books of the East" has but made it appear the 
worthier and more valuable by way of comparison. 

In the New Testament we behold law not only in a later stage 
but of another system. Israel had meanwhile come under the mighty 
aegis of Rome and its noble jurisprudence had taken root in Pales- 
tine. The Beatitudes refer to the Praetor*' and the procedure before 
him which influenced so profoundly the progress of the Roman 

' Scudder, Introduction to the Writings of Ruskin, 3. 

* Psalm xix. 7. 

* Psalm i. 

" See the author's "Primitive Malay Marriage Law" in American Anthro- 
pologist, XII, 252. 

* Matt. V. 25. 



740 THE OPEN COURT. 

law ; and both the Gospels^ and the Epistles^ of St. Paul apply the 
Roman rule of evidence that ''in the mouth of two or three witnesses 
every word may be established." 

Indeed the great apostle to the Gentiles appears to have been 
fairly well versed in Roman law as was not unnatural for one of his 
nativity and education. He knew his rights as a citizen of the great 
empire and when one of its officials was about to inflict summary 
punishment upon him St. Paul stayed it by the simple but effective 
inquiry, "Is it lawful for you to scourge a man that is a Roman 
and uncondemned?"" PLven more sublime was his (perhaps) un- 
conscious tribute to the majesty of the Roman law, when in answer 
to the unauthorized query of the Roman governor Festus as to 
whether he would submit himself to an irregular tribunal at Jeru- 
salem, St. Paul said: "I stand at Csesar's judgment seat where I 
ought to be judged: to the Jews have I done no wrong, as thou 
very well knowest. For if I be an offender or have committed 
anything worthy of death, I refuse not to die, but if there be none 
of these things whereof these accuse me, no man may deliver me 
unto them. I appeal to Csesar."'° 

We all know the momentous consequences of that appeal. The 
record of this prosecution of St. Paul as contained in these few chap- 
ters of the book of Acts^^ is one of the most extensive descriptions 
that has come down to us of the actual administration of the Roman 
law in the provinces. In teaching Roman law I find them most 
helpful and instructive to my classes, for unconsciously the writer 
of Acts has here preserved for us the almost complete record of a 
Roman criminal cause. 

Then where is there a statement of the doctrine of "due process 
of law" which equals this answer of Festus to the native ruler 
Agrippa as recorded in the same book?^- "It is not the manner of 
the Romans to deliver any man to die, before that he which is ac- 
cused have the accusers face to face, and have license to answer 
for himself concerning the crime laid against him." The doctrine 
itself is much older, appearing, indeed, in the Twelve Tables, ^^ but I 
do not know of an expression of it, so clear at once and forceful, in 
all the rich legal literature of Rome or indeed of any other nation. 

But the uses of the Bible as a law book have not been wholly 
academic. Aside from its legal authority in ancient Israel it has 
repeatedly been given the force of law by Christian peoples. When 

'Matt, xviii. 19. '2 Cor. xiii. i; i Tim. v. 19. 

'Acts xxii. 25. "Acts xxv. 10, 11. 

" xxii-xxvi. " Acts xxv. 16. " Table IX, 6. 



THE BIBEL AS A LAW BOOK. 741 

in the seventh century of our era, the Visigoths laid the foundation 
of the modern Spanish law by promulgating their great law book, 
the Forum Judicum,^* they drew very considerably from the Mosaic 
legislation. The same source was largely utilized by John Calvin, 
nine centuries later when he came to devise laws for that interesting 
theocracy which he established at Geneva. ^^ In New England the 
followers of Calvin almost reenacted the Mosaic code. John Eliot, 
the Indian apostle, appealed to it as the model for his "Christian 
Commonwealth, "^° and Nathaniel Ward of Ipswich borrowed from 
it, if indeed he did not make it the basis of his code of 1641 which 
he called the "Body of Liberties." Even in the middle of the nine- 
teenth century Strang, the Mormon leader, caused the Hebrew 
legislation to be reenacted for his island community in Lake Michi- 
gan. 

We are met to-night to dedicate a building to the work of dis- 
tributing this Book of Books among the Filipino people. Wholly 
aside from its religious aspects, do we not find ample justification 
for such an enterprise in the historic fact that so many peoples, 
in the same or similar ethnic stages, have found in this work a 
satisfying basis for their legislation, a charter of liberties and a 
source of legal institutions? Indeed, it places the Bible itself in a 
new light to learn of these added uses to which it has been devoted 
since the traditional close of the canon, for it shows that the epochs 
of scriptural growth and development did not end then. From the 
lawgiver of Sinai to the seer of Patmos is truly a far cry and 
represents a long period of religious evolution, but even this inter- 
val does not include the entire history of this great literary produc- 
tion. We have seen how that history has been prolonged since the 
time of Paul, and there is reason to believe that it began long before 
Moses. Speaking of the code which the Babylonian stele of 2200 
B. C. (discovered somewhat more than a decade ago) represents the 
Sun-God as handing to King Hammurabi, a recent authority^ ^ says: 

"Between this code and the different codes mentioned in the 
Old Testament, such as the Covenant (9th century), Deuteronomy 
(7th century) and the Priestly Code (5th century), there are, be- 

"See Scott's edition ("The Visigothic Code") VI (IV), 5; Bk. Ill (IV), 
9; Bk. XII (II), 12. 

" Dyer, Life of Calvin, 150. Cf. Osgood, "The Political Ideas of the Puri- 
tans," Political Science Quarterly, III, 9; Laveleye, in his Introduction to 
Strauss, Origin of Republican Form of Government in the United States, xix. 

"London, 1659. 

" Montet (Vice Rector of the University of Geneva) "Israel and Baby- 
lonian Civilization," The Open Court, XXIII, 628. 



742 THE OPEN COURT. 

sides noticeable differences, resemblances so striking and character- 
istic that it must at least be admitted that the legislators of the two 
countries, Babylon and Israel, were inspired beforehand by the same 
common law. Here and there, however, the resemblances are so 
close that it is very difficult to escape from the conclusion that the 
Hebrew legislator had under his eye the code of the King of Baby- 
lon." 

"Slowly the Bible of the race is writ, 

And not on fading leaves or slabs of stone ; 

Each age, each people adds a verse to it — 

Texts of despair or hope, of joy or moan. 

While swirls the sea, while shifts the mountain shroud. 

While thunderous surges beat on cliffs of cloud. 

Still at the prophets' feet the nations sit." 



THE SMALLEST REPUBLIC IN THE WORLD. 

BY THE EDITOR. 

npHE visit of the Prince of Monaco to American shores recalls 
J- to our minds the tiny principality of which this studious and 
efficient scientist is the ruler. There are a few other independent 
governments in Europe of very small dimensions, and not the least 
interesting of these is the republic of Moresnet which this year 
celebrates its centennial anniversary. 

Some time ago a Swiss author by the name of Hoch wrote 
a little book on this forgotten territory in central Europe/ which 
is scarcely known to the world, except to specialists, and whose ex- 
istence is due to the jealousy between Belgium and Prussia. 

When the great powers divided Europe among themselves after 
Napoleon's defeat, there was a strip of territory smaller than any 
other country in the world, being only 330 acres in extent and in- 
habited at the time by only a couple of thousand people, which was 
claimed by two of the powers, and they were not anxious to go 
to war about it. This was the little township Kelmis, also called 
Altenburg, and since 1793 known as Moresnet, to be pronounced 
Moraynay. The significance of the place was due at the time to 
calamin mines, which were then found in a mountain called Bleyberg 
in the immediate vicinity of Kelmis. 

The tiny republic of Moresnet lies between the three cities, 
the Belgian Louvain, the Prussian Aix-la-Chapelle and the Prussian 
town Eupen. It is reached by the Belgian state railroad between 
Aix-la-Chapelle and Vezier. Moresnet, the capital of the country, 
possesses a post-office, but they issue no postal stamps of their own. 
Stamps of either Prussian or Belgian denomination are accepted. 

This small strip of ground belonged to Austria until 1793. It 

* Published in Bern, Switzerland, 1881, under the title Un territoireoublie 
au centre de I'Europe. See also F. Schroeder, Das grenzstreitige Gebiet von 
Moresnet. Aix-la-Chapelle, 1902. 



744 THE OPEN COURT. 

was then taken by France during the revolution, and continued a 
French possession until the defeat of Napoleon at Leipsic. When 
the map of Europe was reconstructed at the convention of Vienna, 
Moresnet might have fallen either to Belgium or to Prussia, had 
not the calamin mines been of interest to both countries. Neither 
of the contending powers cared very much for the possession of these 
few acres, but both wanted to have free access to the mines which 
at that time furnished mainly zinc ores. The result was that both 
Prussia and Belgium allowed the inhabitants to have their own 
government on condition that the ores should have free importa- 
tion into both states. 

The constitution of Moresnet was newly drafted in the forties, 
and the rival governments allowed the people entire freedom on 
condition that the commercial interests should be equally divided 
between the two powers. They allowed the people to elect their 
own mayor who administers the little country with the aid of a 
council of ten. The four thousand inhabitants are about one-third 
Belgians and two-thirds Germans. The mines have given out and 
so the only interest either country would have to possess Moresnet 
has been lost, but the independence of the little republic has been 
preserved. 

All young men born in Moresnet are free from military duty, 
while the German and Belgian settlers have to serve in their own 
country. This little republic of Moresnet is blessed above all other 
republics in the world by not having any import duty. They have 
no custom houses on their Belgian and Prussian frontiers, and. 
what is better still, they have no courts. The few quarrels that arise 
among the inhabitants can be settled at will either before Belgian 
or German courts, while they are relieved of all responsibility in 
international affairs ; for in spite of being a European republic they 
have never been asked to any of the European conferences, and 
have had no part in making or waging any of the European wars, 
so the mayor can attend to his home politics, unmindful of what may 
happen in the rest of the world. 

In connection with this smallest of the nations we may mention 
also those other and better known countries which are not so much 
greater, but likewise owe their independence either to rivalry be- 
tween two great powers or to the forgetfulness of the world which 
is excusable on account of their small size. There is a country 
called Andorra, which is situated between France and Spain in the 
eastern portion of the Pyrenees, and is bounded on the west by 
Spanish Catalonia and on the east by the French department Ariege. 



THE SMALLEST REPUBLIC IN THE WORLD. 745 

It enjoys free trade with France, to which it is afifiUated as a kind 
of dependency. Originally the country was governed by the bishop 
of Urgel and the count of Foix. How small and insignificant it is 
may be seen from the fact that the income which the bishop draws 
from Andorra is 460 francs, which is less than $90, a year, while the 
income of the government consists of a tribute to the amount of 960 
francs paid at present to the successor of the old count of Foix, the 
French republic. The bishop divides his authority with the pope 
and has the right to install priests four months in a year, while the 
pope installs them during the other eight months. When the counts 
of Foix died out they left the principality to a Count Albert, and 
when the country fell to France its international government was 
interfered with as little as possible, and the inhabitants were not 
prevented from drawing a goodly revenue by smuggling. 

At present the country is governed by a council of twenty-four 
and a president who is elected for life. Juridical affairs are in the 
hands of two judges called in French viguiers, and in Catalonian 
I'egueros, who have the high-sounding title Ilhistres. Military 
service is compulsory. Every adult man is obliged to serve and 
must equip himself with arms as he deems best, and, as may be ex- 
pected, most of them are good shots. 

We may add a few comments on the two smallest principalities 
of Europe of which the best known is Monaco, on the Ligurian 
coast of the Mediterranean, surrounded by French territory. Though 
much larger than Moresnet, it has only eight square miles of area 
and may possess about sixteen or seventeen thousand inhabitants, 
but it is frequented by many fashionable and wealthy travelers who 
are attracted by the mild climate and also by the gambling resorts 
of Monte Carlo. Down to a recent date the country was an absolute 
monarchy, but of late the scholarly prince has granted a kind of 
constitution. This country too is defended by an army which con- 
sists of 125 men, seventy-five soldiers and fifty policemen. 

Considerably larger, yet still very small, is the principality of 
Liechtenstein, which is situated on the upper Rhine between Switzer- 
land and Austria, having about 10,000 inhabitants who live in a 
territory of seventy square miles. Like Moresnet the country of 
Liechtenstein has at times been forgotten, and this happened at an 
important moment of its history. When peace was declared after 
Prussia had conquered the allied states in the war of 1866, the 
principality of Liechtenstein was left entirely out of account. As 
a result of this obliviousness on the part of the contracting govern- 
ments, Prussia must still be considered as in a state of war with 



746 THE OPEN COURT. 

Liechtenstein. But this fact has been generally forgotten, and 
many travelers from the Prussian provinces enjoy the beautiful 
scenery of Liechtenstein in the most peaceful spirit. The prince 
of Liechtenstein has granted a constitution to his country, which 
provides for a parliament of fifteen members, three of whom are 
appointed by the prince and twelve elected, not to mention four 
additional members who are called in if any of the active members 
are disabled from service. There is no independent Liechtenstein 
post-office, and in general the country is closely attached to Austria. 



THE FOURTH DIMENSION. 

BY HYLAND CLAIR KIRK. 



OF course it is best to have characters in telhng- a story ; though 
many are told as lacking apparently in this respect as would 
be the tale of a meteor or a pin-head. And in instances there may 
be an element of safety in such a course ; for if a story were told 
about either of these objects, the work done illustratively and with 
a psychological turn, it might be said : "Ah, it is aimed at some 
lofty personage, as So-and-So," or "at some insignificant person, as 
So-and-So" ; and the danger of aiming at any one has been often 
pointed out in criminal cases. 

Accordingly let it be noted at the very outset of this narrative, 
that, although there have been a considerable number of profound 
thinkers who have presented their views to the public on the subject 
of the fourth dimension, the principal character herein described, 
Professor Purcellini, the meteoric inventor of the scenograph and 
other startling novelties, was none of these ; a statement very easily 
substantiated by the fact that he had a contempt for writing on any 
subject which he thought might be elucidated in a practical way — 
an idea which he seems to have held of this very theme, usually 
regarded as so extremely baffling and recondite. 

It was Purcellini in pursuit of this same subject, who won the 
wager on being able to make clear and comprehensible to others, 
five degrees of ideal representation — that is, five conceivable stages 
in mental imagery, each one more remote from the real object than 
the preceding, and yet so as to preserve the idea of the real thing. 
The object selected was a hunch-back member of the club, who con- 
sented to act ; and the conditions were that it must be made clear 
how Tommy Jones could be conceived of by the six of seven mem- 
bers who happened to be present, five degrees remote from his actual 
personality and yet so as to be recognizable. 



748 THE OPEN COURT. 

The first degree, as presented by Purcellini, was the thought 
of Tommy when absent ; which would necessarily apply to the other 
stages. The second was a series of moving-photos representing 
Tommy walking about. The third consisted of the photos of the reflec- 
tions in a mirror of Tommy in action. The fourth was made up of 
the moving-photos of a shadow of Tommy reflected in a mirror. 
As to the fifth, Purcellini said : 

"Now, gentlemen, all you have to do to realize the fifth degree 
is, to dream about this moving shadow of Tommy and then recall 
your dream the next morning, and you have : first, your immediate 
concept of the dream-shadow ; second, the dream-shadow of Tommy's 
photo reflected in the mirror ; third, the photo of the shadow re- 
flected in the mirror ; fourth, the shadow reflected ; and fifth, the 
shadow of Tommy. 

Despite the contention that a shadow was not an adequate 
representation, it was xlecided that it would be in the case of Tommy 
Jones, and the wager was accordingly awarded to Purcellini. 

Yes, it is best to have characters in a story that may be neither 
oft'ensively realistic, nor yet so indefinite as to be mistaken for mete- 
ors or pin-heads ; and that is why Hans Steinmann is also introduced 
to the reader. Plans was a sort of natural phenomenon to be sure, 
but resembling neither of these insensate objects. He was a blue- 
eyed blond of medium size, an honest-faced, compactly-built German 
mechanic, self-educated in the use of English, and with a vocabulary 
that would make a column of Esperanto look like the opening pages 
of a primer ! 

Hans was quite an ordinary workman before he met Purcellini, 
and poor — well, the proverbial rodent of cloistered proclivities might 
have furnished him a meal on more than one occasion. He owed the 
making of what fortune he possessed — involved wholly in his Florida 
workshop and ranch — to that lucky meeting ; and no doubt Purcel- 
lini owed considerable of his much larger fortune to the same cir- 
cumstance, as their peculiarities were such that one could never have 
accomplished very much without the other. Hans, though knowing 
little of letters and still less of formulated science and philosophy, 
was patient, practical, deft in handling tools and could readily see 
how to construct any conceivable mechanism ; while Purcellini in 
manner was apt to be irascible, was in fact learned and scientific, 
though disclaiming all interest in the metaphysical. And this will 
appear to the reader as it did to some of his friends as a curious 
anomaly. While he would discourse learnedly on the views of 
philosophers and upon abstruse philosophical questions, he always 



THE FOURTH DIMENSION. 749 

gave the problems involved a substantial interpretation and insisted 
upon calling himself a materialist. Another deceptive element in his 
make-up was, that though he appeared at times so gruff as to be 
repellent, this was largely due to preoccupation and his absorption 
in processes of working out mechanical problems of one sort or 
another. For beneath this grumpy exterior there beat the warmest 
sort of a heart, most sympathetic perhaps for those who could throw 
light on his own pursuits ; yet some of his friends believed such 
preference if it existed to be due more to another influence than his 
own inclinations which were broadly and deeply human, and little 
else. 

Purcellini was large, dark, full-bearded, with the blackest of 
eyes and hair ; and it must be mentioned here that his consort. 
Madam Purcellini. was his feminine counterpart to a considerable 
extent in disposition and appearance, except that she was tall and 
possessed of more than ordinary grace of form and feature. She 
was really the other influence or extra force in his life. Though not 
as learned as her erudite partner. Madam Purcellini possessed an 
inordinate ambition which under favoring circumstances might have 
given her a name with the queens of the earth. As it was, the only 
escape for her peculiar energy was through keeping her husband 
up to his work. 

"Women," she had been known to remark, "accomplish much 
in this world for Avhich they get no credit ; yet merit is more than 
reputation or reward." 

Thus it came about that only two persons could manage Purcel- 
lini : his wife who dominated him, and Hans whom he dominated — the 
former in general and the latter in all questions involving the details 
of mechanical construction. Thus Purcellini came to be a model of 
exactness, somewhat in opposition to his natural bent, because of 
these personal influences, and his own tendency to reduce scientific 
truth to a working formula. In walking, which he often indulged in, 
he always took a most direct course because it was established in 
his own mind that there is the greatest conservation of bodily energy 
by following the line of least resistance, and that the shortest dis- 
tance between two points is neither crooked nor curved. Hans in 
his gait followed no rule, and the professor in his walk and move- 
ments was always a wonder to him. In fact up to about this time 
Hans actually entertained such a feeling of respect and even awe 
for Professor Purcellini's abilities, that he never would admit to an 
outsider that that gentleman was wrong or had ever been wrong in 
anything ! 



750 THE OPEN COURT. 

For about six months Hans had been at work under the written 
instructions of the Professor upon a new device, the most startHng 
and wonderful — according to the Professor's own account — of any- 
thing he had ever conceived. The original instructions received by 
Hans were as follows: 

"First 

"You will construct an apparatus to be attached to the car of 
a dirigible balloon ; an improved camera obscura, of lenses and mir- 
rors, which will focus the surface of the earth below, so that an ob- 
server in the car may be able to see the whole surface reduced in 
the picture. 

"Second 

"This picture is to be made susceptible of being enlarged or 
reduced at the will of the operator, and also of being run when 
photographed in kinetoscope films, suitable levers for enlarging 
and reducing being attached for the observer's convenience. 

"Third 

"Space is to be left beneath the eye-piece for the attachment 
of a circular transparency, one foot in diameter, of peculiar proper- 
ties, now being specially manufactured in Germany. A surprising 
feature of this transparent plate is, that when elevated even a slight 
distance above the earth, it seems to extend the visible horizon every 
way ; and the power of penetration it affords the vision is no less 
wonderful." 

These instructions were quite separate from the letter which, 
after referring to such minor matters as salary and expenses, con- 
cluded as follows: 

"I believe, my dear Hans, that this new ' Space- Annihilator & 
Time-Accelerator,' will prove the most wonderful invention of the 
age! It was the conclusion of that eminent philosopher, Immanuel 
Kant, that space and time are not actualities, but merely structural 
elements of the human mind. Accordingly as the mind depends 
entirely on sensation, certain higher philosophers, basing their view 
on occult phenomena, believe that a fourth dimension exists, not 
included in length, breadth, or thickness. By taking advantage of 
this fact, my invention will enable one to increase or decrease space 
or time at will by simply adjusting the mechanism. It is not every 
one who can grasp the idea, and you may not readily take it in 
yourself. But as soon as you are ready with the apparatus which I 



THE FOURTH DIMENSION. 751 

have described, I will be there with the magic transparency to show 
you what a wonderful thing it is. 

As ever yours, 

P. PURCELLINI." 

Up to this point — the receipt of this letter — as already noted, 
Hans, the obedient executor of his employer's designs, had never — 
except in the little details of construction and workmanship — ques- 
tioned that employer's word or thought. Nor would he have done 
so now, little as he understood what Purcellini was aiming at, had 
it not been for Hetty Smith, another character who, although pre- 
senting her sweetest smile and prettiest bow to the reader for the 
first time, has really been in the game ever since she left Madam 
Purcellini's employ on the last visit of that remarkable lady to 
Florida, and since Hetty became a teacher of the youthful Crackers 
in that vicinity. 

Yes, this tale without Hetty, a hazel-eyed, demure product of 
Vassar, Wellesley, or some other feminine intellect factory, would 
be not unlike Shakespeare's famous tragedy with Hamlet ofif his 
job. She was so undemonstrative and quiet naturally, that few if 
any would suspect the fact that she had a tremendous dynamo be- 
hind the pigeon-holes of her brain with all necessary machinery 
attached; so that when grappling with any subject the action kept 
right up, until the said theme was duly ground out, classified, la- 
beled and put away. After which it was dangerous for any one to 
disagree with Hetty on that particular topic. 

Hans was undoubtedly afraid of Hetty ; he knew she knew his 
utter lack of knowledge. No other woman caused him such embar- 
rassment as she did when he attempted to converse with her. Still 
Hetty encouraged him by often complimenting his skilful workman- 
ship ; and Hans sometimes ventured to confide in her, as he did in 
this instance, by showing her his instructions in Purcellini's letter. 

Hetty took a whole week to ponder over that missive, during 
which time she consulted all the books she possessed or could find 
in the vicinity affording information as to the meaning of the fourth 
dimension. Not content with this she wrote to one of her old 
teachers about it who sent her several works on the subject, in- 
cluding Hinton's clever romances. Abbot's Flatland, Professor Man- 
ning's collection of prize essays on the subject, and Henri Bergson's 
Time and Free Will. 

Several months passed before she reached a definite conclusion 
after receiving these books, and one quite remarkable dream she 



752 THE OPEN COURT. 

attributed to their influence. At first she was puzzled by such f(ues- 
tions as that of Professor Manning in the Introduction to his work : 
"Why may there not be a o;eometry with four mutually perpendicu- 
lar lines, in \\hich the position of a point is determined by measur- 
ing in four peri)endicular directions?" 

But after ])ondering- over this, she asked herself: "Well, if 
Professor Manning conceives such perpendiculars, as straight lines 
are easy to draw, why does he not make a diagram of his concept?" 
And then the absurdity of the proposition becoming apparent to 
her, since it is impossible to have more than three perpendiculars 
meet at a common point, she decided that this is a question which 
has no proper place in geometry of any sort, not even in the non- 
Euclidean. As Professor Manning says : "The non-Euclidean geom- 
etries do not themselves assume that space is curved, nor do the non- 
Euclidean geometries of two and three dimensions make any as- 
sumption in regard to a fourth dimension." 

She concluded that the fourth dimension, mathematically con- 
sidered, is purely algebraic and not geometrical in any realizable 
sense ; and of course algebraically, we may have as many dimensions 
as we choose to make symbols to represent them ; yet they will be 
"dimensions" in name only. 

The notion of geometries of n dimensions introduced into 
mathematical investigations by Caley, Grassmann, Riemann, Clifford, 
Newcomb, Stringham, Veronese and others, she decided to be purely 
speculative, and to be more appropriately termed algebraic ; because 
geometrically such dimensions can neither be illustrated nor con- 
ceived. Equally inconceivable appeared to her the statement of 
another mathematician, that "to a reasonable mind unfamiliar with 
jur universe, space of four dimensions would appear to be a priori 
quite as probable as space of three" ; since no one can imagine "a 
reasonable mind unfamiliar with our universe," any more than he 
can a space of four dimensions. 

Hetty became aroused to the fact that the term "fourth dimen- 
sion" has been seized upon by various classes as a new form of in- 
cantation to explain phenomena, with the result simply of mysti- 
fying themselves as well as others. Thus, that one could cause 
writings of the dead to be reproduced on a slate as Professors Zoell- 
ner and Fechner thought the medium Slade to have done, she could 
not see as having any relation to a fourth dimension, as those phi- 
losophers supposed : especially as Slade was subsequently caught 
writing the messages on the slate with his toes ! 

Also such ideas as that "a sphere may be turned inside out in 



THE FOURTH DIMENSION. 753 

space of four dimensions without tearing," "that an object may be 
passed out of a closed box or room without penetrating the walls, 
that a knot in a cord may be untied without moving the ends of the 
cord, and that the links of a chain may be separated unbroken" — 
claims made by the Fourth Dimensionists — she decided to be all 
nonsens'e so far as involving a fourth dimension ; for if such things 
could or should occur, they would happen through the interpenetra- 
tion of matter in a three-dimensional space, and a fourth dimension 
would have nothing to do with it. 

Another thing, backing up to gain momentum, and conceiving 
that there may be beings in space of one dimension — beings of which 
we know nothing, and then of two dimensions — of which we also 
know nothing and can conceive nothing, and then passing over the 
beings in three-dimensional space which we do measurably under- 
stand, and assuming therefore that there is a fourth-dimensional 
space and beings in it — of which we neither know the space nor the 
beings, she regarded as wholly illogical ; since, as Edward H. Cutler 
says, "these suppositions involve a fatal confusion of mathematical 
with physical conceptions," a one-dimension space being impossible 
except as a mathematical abstraction, and furnishing no basis of 
thought for a fourth dimension. 

It was about at this point in her researches that Hetty's dream 
came in, in which she seemed at first to be awake and working with 
a microscope, when as a surprise it came to her that bacteria — ^some 
of them appearing as mere mathematical points — were creatures of 
one-dimensional space. This so astonished her that she became 
partly awakened, when she was suddenly seized with the apprehen- 
sion that there might be beings of two-dimensional space in her 
vicinity. She was sleeping in an ancient mansion and in an ancien' 
bed, and the previous day she had been reading of a glass bee-hive 
"with its floor and roof of horizontal glass plates brought so close 
together that there is barely room for the bees to move about between 
them," — an illustration of a world of two dimensions with the bees 
as two-dimensional beings. 

Yet a bee is not merely long and broad, most bees can demon- 
strate their thickness with stinging emphasis ; and less emphatically 
though quite as disagreeably Hetty suddenly became aroused to the 
idea that there were two-dimensional beings with scarcely any thick- 
ness flitting or sw'iftly creeping about under the cover of her bed. 
In fact she even detected such beings and impressed upon them a 
two-dimensional flatness which they did not possess before ! 

Still, W'hile thus forcibly reminded of the existence of creatures 



754 THE OPEN COURT. 

closely approximating^ to two dimensions, the very next day she 
found something- in Bergson's Time and Free Will, which seemed 
to shut out all four-dimensional creatures and settle that question 
by showing that the fourth dimension of space is not something 
imaginary but a phase of the existence we know and already recog- 
nize. 

So much time* had now elapsed since she began her investiga- 
tions following Hans's receipt of Purcellini's letter, his work on 
the new device being nearly completed, that Hans had quite lost 
sight of the fact that Hetty had any interest in this subject, and 
one day casually handed her another letter from Purcellini in which 
occurred the following: "That there is a fourth dimension in space 
there is no doubt ; since it accords with the fact that both time and 
space originate from the human mind ! And hence the certainty 
that our invention will revolutionize the world !" 

"Pursy's gone crazy !" said Hetty reflectively. 

Hans ventured to remonstrate: "Do you it tink? I do not see 
how dot could efer be. De great Brofessor haf notings in his mind 
mit him like de crazinesses. You haf not already yet seen his drans- 
parencies, a vonderful ting made in Germany." 

"Now Hans," was the reply, "I'm from Missouri" (and perhaps 
she was, though she came from New York with the Purcellinis), 
"and nobody can prove to me that nonsense is sense! Why talk 
about time and space coming out of, that is starting, originating in 
our minds. Can't you see that we originate in time and space?" 

"Yaw, O yes," said Hans in a little less assertive spirit. 

"Can't you see that naturally we have a correct idea of the 
dimensions of space, because we develop from and are as it were 
permeated by space whether we have minds or not? — and some 
people haven't much!" 

Hans merely grinned. 

"Now, Hansy, I'm not personal. You have mind enough, only 
you haven't any confidence in yourself. You have been hoodooed 
by Pursy, who has himself been so hoodooed by his ambitious wife 
that he is getting to be as crazy as a loon !" 

"Do you it really tink?" said Hans earnestly. "I haf somedings 
to said about dot, I vait dill I see his crazinesses pefore his eyes !" 

"Now listen," said Hetty smiling. "Of course you are getting 
your pay for your work, and that is right enough. But suppose that 
we were at the center of the earth !" 

Hans grinned again. "Veil, anyting to accommodates !" 



THE FOURTH DIMENSION. 755 

"If you and I were at the center of the earth, would not every 
direction be toward the surface?" 

"Yaw, O yes." 

"But the Fourth Dimensionist says there is some other direc- 
tion, not toward the surface, but toward some strange, mystical re- 
gion — the land of the inconceivable — and that is why I say that poor 
Pursy, driven to it probably by the ambition of that terrible wife 
of his, his 'Goddess of the Occult' as he calls her, in an effort to 
make practical and attain the unattainable, has actually gone crazy!" 

Hans unconvinced, was yet disposed to learn more of the facts 
as he inquired : "Iss de fourd dimensions somedings pefore de 
bread, lengths, and tickness?" 

"Before or behind, just as you prefer. It is supposed to be 
another direction in space, not length, not breadth, not thickness." 

"Veil, suppose ve haf a cube, or a globe, den de mofements of 
dat boddy mit itself, if it mofe altogedder, mighd pe a fourd dimen- 
sions — vas'nt it, Fraulein?" 

"Yes, you are right ; the figure or direction of such a movement 
might be called a fourth dimension, and that suggests something, 
Hansy, the real nature of the only thing in nature which is entitled 
to be called and may properly be called the fourth dimension." 

"Veil, vat ist?" 

"Suppose, that one cube or globe, you speak of, was the whole 
of space^filled all space ; then moving it forward — pulling it out — 
its extension would be a fourth dimension, wouldn't it?" 

"Yaw, I tink so ; but how could de space be pulled oud ?" 

"Extended? Why, as we think of it, isn't it being extended — ■ 
pulled out constantly, not unlike the idea of the fourth dimension 
a cube or a globe produces in moving forward. In other words, 
isn't time itself the fourth dimension of space?" 

"Aha, dot may pe it," said Hans reflectively. 

"That is its most appropriate application," continued Hetty, "a 
continuous memory of space relations, instead of another realm 
which the mystics, doping themselves with mere words, strive to 
connect with everything that's unseen, and unknown ; as if it solved 
the mystery of existence." 

"Ah ha!" said Hans, "Iss dot de Brofessor's idea he haf wit 
himself?" 

"Yes and it is really too bad, he has such a brilliant intellect." 

"Das ist drue," remarked Hans energetically. "But de Bro- 
fessor say de great Germans Kant, he hold dis mit himself too al- 
ready." 



756 THE OPEN COURT. 

"Kant, yes, that mighty thinker never thought of a fourth di- 
mension, and would have spurned the idea as commonly conceived ; 
yet he is to blame for it all ; for if the dimensions of space proceed 
merely from the mind, one can have as many dimensions as a Turk 
has wives !" 

Hans's eyes dilated, and his mouth opened in wonderment at 
her logic. 

"Suppose," she went on, "Kant did hold that space and time 
are the outcome from our minds instead of our being mere incidents 
in space and time — so that length, breadth and thickness are purely 
ideal — suppose he did entertain such an inconsistent view, do we 
have to believe it?" 

Hans grinned in reply. 

"Besides your great German philosopher was only theorizing. 
The danger lies in trying to make such a thing practical. Hansy, 
never indulge in a doctrine that requires you to give up your life to 
test its correctness." 

"No, I vill not!" 

"And that is what this is likely to result in, don't you see? It 
means mystifying, fooling oneself about an inner, unseen, wholly 
imaginary state, which the doped ones are immediately desirous of 
getting into, even at the expense of their lives — do you understand?" 

"I think so, yaw, O yes, but — " 

"And don't you see that Pursy is way off in his calculations?" 

"Veil, I vait till he come mit his dransparencies from Germany !" 

II. 

Quite in accord with the press reports, it was a beautiful spring 
morning, and seated in a comfortable chair on the lawn of his Flor- 
ida estate. Professor Pedro Purcellini, the wizard inventor of the 
scenograph and other startling panoramic devices, was contemplating 
with some degree of complacency the practical outcome of his most 
recent thought. 

After years of earnest study and research he had struck upon 
the startling concept, that if he could arrange a mechanism so as 
fully and completely to impress the senses and thus affect the whole 
mind with the idea that space was to a large extent annihilated, it 
would in that degree actually be annihilated ; and, if at the same time 
a spur could be applied to the mind's action, time would be accel- 
erated accordingly, and in exact degree corresponding to the grada- 
tions given the accelerative force. 

To diverge slightly from the somewhat hastily prepared press 



THE FOURTH DIMENSION. 757 

notices, there was a peculiar anxiety in the Professor's expression 
which could not be attributed entirely to his ruminations over the 
future prospects of this new child of his thought. To tell the whole 
truth, his mind oscillated between two goals, ever and anon extend- 
ing out and taking in a mechanism more difificult to comprehend 
even than his latest invention, a mechanism named Angelina, with 
a feminine face not devoid of beauty, and yet dominated when in 
repose with force and decision to the point of harshness. That face, 
the face of his wife, seemed to mark a final step, to which his wonder- 
ful invention was a mere leader. 

Yes, as soon as he should prove the correctness of view in the 
work of this latest device, nothing should be permitted to stand in 
the way of his publishing to the world how much he owed to her — 
and that was the acme of his thought and hope. 

For months previously he had worked late and early arranging 
his plans, while his apparatus was being perfected. Everything had 
been put in order the night before, and now the mechanism of his 
wonderful "Space-Annihilator & Time-Accelerator" was complete. 
His assistants had brought it forth, and it was being adjusted in the 
car of the dirigible which, at an altitude anywhere from three hun- 
dred to five thousand feet, at any point which might be selected above 
the earth, would afiford the necessary scope and range for its success- 
ful operation. 

As he gazed upon it the gratified expression which gradually 
crept over the Professor's face indicated the satisfaction he was be- 
ginning to experience within. 

"It must be so," he reflected. "The mighty Kant, before whose 
genius not only German philosophy but the whole world bends the 
knee, must be right. Time and space, as the fundamental forms of 
perception under which we become conscious of the outside world 
and of ourselves, originate from within. We impose those forms 
upon all that we see and hear, taste and feel, and being fully con- 
scious of their purely formal character, there is nothing in the way 
of success !" 

He felt especially exultant that everything was now in readiness 
to make the demonstration in such a clear and forcible manner as 
not merely to enable the truth to be plainly seen and understood, but 
as he believed to sweep away all doubts from the minds of the 
sceptical ; and what a revolution in the world it would make ! 

The dirigible was oscillating slightly in the breeze as the Pro- 
fessor stepped into the car. His assistant Hans Steinmann, mechan- 
ical engineer and aeronaut, shut oflf the flow of gas ; the men below 



758 THE OPEN COURT. 

disengaged the tackle holding car and float to the earth, and the 
"Triumph" rose like a bird. 

It required but a few moments as it appeared to gain the neces- 
sary altitude, when Purcellini taking the magic transparency from 
its case placed it in position beneath the eye-piece and touched the 
button controlling the space lever. Instantly there occurred an al- 
most indefinable action, as a rapid movement toward a center affect- 
ing every object and point of view below — and lo ! one-half of the 
earth's entire surface — that of the hemisphere toward him — lay open 
to his vision. Not merely the land and water, forests and mountains, 
cities and plantations toward which his attraction was directed, but 
the dwellings and their inmates, down to the smallest child, were 
visible when details were closely scrutinized. He had only to direct 
his vision to any point desired and persist in his search when the 
minutest object came into view. 

Strangely elated he set the time-lever and moved it one notch 
from normal, when the grove of verdant-leaved maples in one of our 
northern states on which his eye chanced to rest, seemed to lose their 
verdancy, yet curiously enough the leaves did not fall but changed 
into buds and then shrank away into bare branches, while the earth 
beneath seemed covered with frost and snow, and near-by ponds 
glistened with ice. 

Ah, he had turned the lever the wrong way ! 

It required but a moment to rectify this by shifting the button 
and pushing the lever up two notches, when presto ! the buds on 
those same maples reappeared, ice and snow vanished, the groves 
were enveloped again in green to speedily change into the yellow 
and red of autumn, and soon the trees were bare as winter could 
make them, quite stripped of their foliage again ! 

What an astounding thing ! 

He turned his attention to a vast herd of cattle on the western 
plains and could scarce believe his eyes ; for the calves grew into 
steers and the steers into oxen and the oxen were hustled into trains 
for the eastern markets with the celerity of a passing procession. 

To get a still more pronounced effect he pushed the lever up 
another notch and with astonished gaze watched the shifting forms 
and scenes below. The rapidity of changing skies, sunshine and 
storm appearing to chase each other like mythological Titans, much 
more rapidly of course than alterations in the landscape — than the 
lessening of forests, the development of railroads and growth of 
towns and cities — yet all were equally bewildering to the observer. 
And now came the climax to his work, he would view the effects 



THE FOURTH DIMENSION. 759 

upon human beings; and quite naturally turned his attention to the 
great city in which he had left his Angelina, the hope of his fondest 
thought. 

With kaleidoscopic rapidity he saw babes develop into boys and 
girls, and they into the more symmetrical shapes of young manhood 
and womanhood — a general survey appearing much like the bubbling 
and flashing of a chemical mixture. And the inmates of his own 
household — his Angelina. Ah, was that she? Her stately, Venus- 
like form was shriveling; her raven tresses were growing white, 
crow's-feet were appearing about the eyes ; the imperious beauty 
of that face which had held him so long in its thrall, became a fixed 
grimace — and then, ah God, a grinning skull! 

How much he actually saw and how much was due to the 
anticipation of his glowing, fevered intellect, may be imagined. 

Purcellini turned aside his gaze. It rested upon a bordering 
mirror of the transparency, when he emitted a shriek of horror! 
Was that withered, tremulous face reflected there his own? 

"Hans, Hans !" he yelled. 

"Veil, vat ist?" 

"Look, look ! See if you can see Angelina !" 

Hans gazed calmly through the transparency upon the scenes 
below. 

"Yaw, I see von girl. But I tink it pe not Anglina, it pe Hetty 
Smitzs !" 

"Pshaw, Hans, you are not enlightened. You do not see beyond 
your immediate vicinity, do not realize the vast importance of that 
hidden phase of being, actual and permanent, on which this shifting 
state — this outward, visible phenomenon, rests. Ah — " 

A surprising change was taking place in the appearance of 
Purcellini himself; his face flushed and eyes dilated, as if he were 
suddenly subject to a spectral challenge. 

"I cannot bear the suspense!" he yelled in his loudest tones. 
"I must get into it — the fourth dimension !" And before Hans could 
interfere to prevent, he had leaped to his destruction out of the car ! 

It was three weeks later, and Hans had returned from the fu- 
neral of his benefactor and also his benefactor's wife ; for the death 
of the latter occurred, as the deliberate act of her own hand in the 
effort to join her consort in that mystic realm, almost simultaneously 
with the reception of the telegram announcing his tragic leap. 

"Hetty," Hans was saying, "I tink vat de fourd dimensions 
mean, I know mineself already!" 



760 THE OPEN COURT. 

"You certainly ought to by this time, Hensy," said Hetty, "after 
all these terrible experiences. Now tell me what it means." 

"Vel, you said all de space is all de while pulled oud, vich is 
de time?" 

"Yes." 

"Von is vat de Brofessor call de complemend of de odder?" 

"Yes." 

"\"at a man tink aboud — too much it may pe — is de complemend 
of hiss thoughd, hiss fourd dimensions?" 

"Yes." 

"Vel," said Hans very impressively and with eyes fixed on the 
young woman: "Angelina, she tink too much aboud de Brofessor 
and him to get a name great mit hisself, vich vas her fourd dimen- 
sions. De Brofessor tink too much of Angelina- and to vork oud all 
she vants him to find oud mit hisself, vich vas his fourd dimensions. 
But ven I looks in de dransparencies, ven de poor Brofessor call — 
vat do I saw? Not vat he see as de fourd dimensions. All I can 
saw is you — you iss my fourd dimensions !" 

"I always did admire your practical judgment," said Hetty as 
she took his hand. 



THE NAMES OF NATIONS IN CHINESE. 

BY THE EDITOR. 

IT is generally known that Chinese script is idiographic, and since 
it is limited to a definite set of traditional characters, the Chinese 
have been confronted in comparatively recent times with the problem 
of finding suitable terms for the names of foreign countries. This 
is not the first time in their history that they have encountered a 
difficulty of this kind. More than a thousand years ago they faced 
a greater problem still when they undertook the transcription of 
religious terms imported from India, and the result was that Bud- 
dhist and religio- philosophical terms constitute a terminology of 
their own, which like words belonging to another language are not 
commonly known among all the inhabitants of the Celestial Em- 
pire. It takes a scholar to be posted in this specialty, and the rules 
of transcription are sometimes very complicated. 

In modern times the effort is made to denote nations by words 
sounding approximately like their original names. In every case 
these designations are quite flattering to the nations for which they 
stand. Take for instance the word for "English," which in America 
among the Indians is supposed to have produced the word "Yankee." 
In Chinese Ying'^ means "excellent," "prominent," "brave." 

The original meaning of ying is a flower whose fruit is not yet 
matured, and thus it denotes flourishing, luxuriant, beautiful, and is 
used in the sense of the flower of knighthood, with the implied 
meaning of excellent, eminent, talented, noble, virtuous or cour- 
ageous. The English themselves could not have chosen a word 
better fitted to place them in a respected position, implying as it 
does that they are the highest efilorescence of mankind. The char- 
acter is composed of two strokes at the top crossed by a dash, de- 
noting "plants," and another character the meaning of which is 
"fresh looking." 



762 THE OPEN COURT. 

Next to the English we might mention the Germans as being 
highly complimented by the transcription of their name. In an 
attempt to reproduce the word deutsch the Chinese pronunciation 
teh was chosen and received the transcription teh,"^ "virtue," well 
known even to the general reader who is not much acquainted with 
the Chinese language, for the word occurs in the classical title 
Tao Teh King, the "Canon of Reason and Virtue." The character 
is composed of three elements : The first one, three strokes on the 
left-hand side, being a man walking, means "to go" ; the upper 
part of the right-hand character is an abbreviation of the character 
"straight," and the Icrwer part means "heart." The idea of virtue 
in Chinese is a heart that in the walk of life is straight. The word 
means virtue in the sense of "goodness," emphasizing mainly the 
religious tendency to benefit others. In this sense it occurs in 
Lao-tze's famous saying, "Requite hatred with kindness." 

Nor has America any right to complain of its name. Since 
all Chinese words are monosyllables, linguists select that part of 
a name which is most prominent, and so America has been called 
Mei^ in Chinese, which means "beautiful," "excellent." The word 
is of very ancient origin, and dates back to the time when the 
Chinese were still a shepherd people and their symbol of beauty 
was a well-grown sheep. The character consists of two pieces ; 
the upper part is the outline of a sheep, showing on top the head 
with horns and ears, and below the four feet stretching out on 
both sides. The lower part of the character mei is the Chinese 
term for "great," and owing to the primitive condition of Chinese 
shepherds, it has come about that the symbol of a great sheep has 
come to denote beauty. Additional meanings are "to esteem," "to 
commend," "to be happy," and together with the character "girl" we 
might translate it by "belle." 

The r in "America" has been dropped for the simple reason 
that the Chinese have a very vague notion of the r, and are in 
the habit of mixing it up with /. Accordingly it is quite natural 
that in the word "France" the r is dropped as well as the ending 
nee. Thus France is called Fa/ and a character pronounced fa, 
meaning "law," "order" and also "doctrine," has been adopted to 
denote the French people. The Chinese character fa is derived 
from the radical "water," and the verb "reduce," or "put away," 

' ^ 3 ^ 4 >Ml 

\i\li\ >^C iJ^ 



THE NAMES OF NATIONS IN CHINESE. 763 

and the symbolism of the word is that it shall denote what reduces 
to a level. It may have reference to the "equality and fraternity" 
in the motto of the French republic. Before the law, all people 
should be on the same level, and treated equally without giving 
preference to any. It is not impossible that the similarity of the 
sound Dharma has influenced the meaning of the word, for the 
word fa denotes especially the Dharma of the Buddhists, the good 
law of religion, and in arithmetical nomenclature it has acquired 
the meaning of a working element in a sum, in the sense of the 
rule for working an example. 

The Russians were formerly called by the word e or 00/ which 
means "to contend," or as a noun "outward feature." The word 
has now been abandoned for another word*^ called e which means 
"sudden." The Japanese tried to pronounce the word "Russia" ru, 
but having no such word, they substituted Lu'^ for it, which is the 
name of the native province of Confucius, the most sacred spot 
for Chinamen. Unfortunately the word has also the meaning "stu- 
pid," and probably for this reason the Russians repudiated the name 
and demanded a substitution which was supplied by another word 
Lu^ which means "dew." The formation of this character, strangely 
enough, has nothing to do with its meaning, for the upper part 
denotes a fish sauce, and the lower part "white," both being con- 
tracted. What connection the symbols have with the meaning it is diffi- 
cult to say. The character might originally have been the designation 
for a rustic dish. As a verb, hi means "to bedew" and is frequently 
used in the figurative sense "to bless." The character is composed 
of "rain" and -"road." A Chinese proverb says, "Riches and honors 
are like the dew of flowers," which means that with the progress 
of the day they disappear as if they had not been.. If we use the 
word as a verb, the idea of Russianizing a country would in a Chi- 
nese pun be tantamount to blessing it with the dew of heaven. 

Names of other countries are of less interest, but we will men- 
tion some of them briefly as follows : 

Italy is called in Chinese // which means "mind" or "thought." 

Spain is called Hsi,^° i. e., west, and the same word may inci- 
dentally be used in the sense of western country or America. 

Sweden and Switerland are both called Shui'^'^ or "auspicious." 
The character is composed of the symbol denoting a gem, and it 
means originally a flat stone about a foot long given to princes as 
a token of their authority like a scepter. Then it means "author- 



IP '« '# '» '* '°H "^ 



764 THE OPEN COURT, 

ity," "rank" or "happiness." It is further used in the sense of a 
keepsake or favor and acquires the meaning of a good omen and 
as an adjective means "august," or "lucky." 

In order to distinguish Sweden from Switzerland the latter 
is differentiated by the word hsi meaning "west," which is pre- 
fixed to shui, thus denoting Switzerland as "western Shui." Some- 
times "Sweden" is expressed by two characters, by "Tien"^- which 
means "rule" or "regulation" joined to the word Shui. 

The word Norway^^ is either expressed by the sound No which 
means consent, or by Wei/* meaning "majesty," "awe," "power." 
Both are frequently combined into one, thus approaching more 
nearly the proper pronunciation of the country. 

We might add as a general rule that all these names are desig- 
nated as names of countries by having the word Kuo/^^ "country," 
added to them. 

''Sl '^^ ''^. "M 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

CURRENTS OF THOUGHT IN THE ORIENT. 

BY B. K. ROY. 

Count Okuma Attacks Socialism. 

Writing on "Japan's Struggle with Finance" in the Japan Magazine 
(Tokyo) for November, Count Okuma takes occasion in this succinct paper 
to attack the socialistic theory of state ownership of industries and public 
utilities. The master statesman of Japan argues thus : 

"Our authorities at present are giving too much attention to protecting 
a few industries at the expense of other and smaller enterprises ; and the 
government itself monopolizes some of the more important and necessary 
national undertakings. Private management of industries, in my opinion, al- 
ways does more to excite national activity and competition than government 
management; it induces the people to cultivate an enterprising and indepen- 
dent spirit, which is very necessary to national development and general 
progress. Popular industry is even more beneficial and effective in promoting 
national efficiency than official industry, however well manipulated and man- 
aged. Whatever the people take in hand they can do, and do with more 
lasting and universal benefit to the nation than what the government does ; 
and if the people once undertake to reduce our great national debt, it will be 
done. Then the government will be more free to devote its attention to edu- 
cation and other important subjects of national welfare, which are now only 
too much neglected. It is more important that the people shall prosper than 
that the government should have ample revenue ; for the government can 
never really be wealthier than the people ; and it is only as the people are 
permitted to cultivate and promote all forms of legitimate industry that they 
can be able to support the government and enable it to meet its obligations." 

Whether Count Okuma is right or wrong or both as regards his cham- 
pionship of the rights of the people against governmental encroachment, we 
leave for the experts and the critics to decide. But the following sentence of 
the Count admits of no controversy : "Certainly a government that prospers 
at the expense of the people is doomed." 

The Returned Students and the Chinese Revolution. 

The part the students of different American and European countries have 
played in bringing about revolutions or radical reforms is too well known to 
warrant any comment here. Like the students of Russia and Italy, America 



766 THE OPEN COURT. 

and Turkey, the students, especially the foreign-educated students, of China 
and Japan have played a noble part in the making of these two great countries. 

Mr. Y. S. Tsao, writing in the Journal of Race Development for July, 
gives an outline of the work accomplished by these "semi-foreigners." He 
says : 

"When the students returned from America in the early eighties, they 
were despised, suspected and watched by the officers of the Manchu govern- 
ment. For the first few years they were given a thorough drilling in Chinese 
literature so as to win them over to the conservative attitude of looking at 
things, and when sufficiently purged of their revolutionary ideas, they were 
left to shift for themselves, for the government had no use for such 'semi- 
foreigners.' But beginning with the reformation after the China-Japan war, 
a number of reformers from the old school went to court as advisors and not a 
few returned students from America were given appointments by high offi- 
cials. However, it was not until after the Boxer uprising that a number of 
them through the recommendation of Yuan Shih Kai were given responsible 
positions in the government." 

On the intellectual activities of the returned students Mr. Tsao says : 

"While the handful of returned students from Europe and America were 
busy occupying themselves with official life, teaching and engineering, a few of 
them translated the works of John Stuart Mill, Huxley, Spencer, Darwin, 
Henry George and other modern writers. 'The doctrine of the survival of 
the fittest has been on the lips of every thinking Chinese, and its grim signifi- 
cance is not lost on a nation that seems to be the center of struggle in the 
East.' However, the greater part of the modern ideas came from Japan 
through the students there who after a few months of training could tran- 
scribe Japanese translations of western books into Chinese. The rapid multi- 
plication of patriotic newspapers and magazines helped immensely to dis- 
seminate modern political ideas along with scientific knowledge throughout 
the length and breadth of the nation. The biographies of such statesmen as 
Washington, Bismarck, Metternich and Gladstone, such leaders as Napoleon, 
Cromwell and Lincoln, such patriots as Mazzini and Garibaldi were literally 
devoured. The doctrines of Rousseau, Montesquieux and Voltaire were ex- 
pounded, and a weekly known as 'The People,' based on the principle of 
'Young Italy,' was started. It had a circulation of 150,000 before it was finally 
suppressed by the Japanese government upon the request of the Manchu 
government." 

Students' Work in India's Social Revolution. 

While the other Oriental countries, helped by their young students, are 
marching on in the path of progress, democracy and self-realization, the young 
students of India are not at rest. They too, beside other things, are taking a 
prominent part in bringing about a social revolution in enslaved and caste- 
ridden India. The following quotation from London India, of October 10, 
will tell its own story : 

"While young Anglo-India is behaving so badly, the middle-aged variety 
of the type is beginning to discover that the Bengal youth is not the villain 
which the Yellow Press has paiinted him. An 'Onlooker,' who is evidently an 
Anglo-Indian employer of labor, writes to the Englishman (Calcutta) to warn 
the European community in India, and particularly in Bengal, that it has not 



MISCELLANEOUS. 767 

been paying sufficient attention to the new spirit of enterprise and adventure 
that is now evident amongst the student class in Bengal. He writes : 

'"I have had an opportunity of personally witnessing the daring, self- 
sacrifice, and disregard for comfort shown by not one but many parties of 
Bengali students from Calcutta who have visited the flooded districts [devas- 
tated in the recent Damudar floods] with relief in the way of provisions and 
medical comforts. Before I saw these boys, I entertained the common idea 
that Bengali students were for the most part short-sighted youths without 
physique and spiritless, entertaining a tremendous opinion of themselves, full 
of perverse hatred of the British Raj, and very contemptuous of their illiterate 
countrymen. These preconceived opinions of mine have now received a rude 
shock. Inquiries I made showed that the majority of the students were not 
only of a respectable class, but of the most respectable class, sons of Zamin- 
dars, of well-known professional men, and of government officials, just the 
boys who could have most easily stayed away. I think that this phenomenon, 
if I may use the word, deserves attention for it means that the youth of Bengal 
is growing very fast in physical and moral directions, and that we will in a 
few years be faced by a community which in character and spirit will be equal 
to the best that Europe can produce. In this flood relief business, the thought 
of caste seems to have dropped entirely. [Most of the victims of the flood 
were poor pariahs.] That alone is an indication of a coming break-up of vast 
dimensions .... Obviously the European must be greatly afifected by the com- 
ing changes. He is here not because he is superior to the Indian in brain, 
but because he has grit and character. If the new generation of Indians also 
displays grit and character, what excuse will there be for bringing out Euro- 
peans to govern the country and control industrial enterprise? However, I 
do not wish to harbor what may seem a very selfish view. If the Bengals turn 
out better men than we are, so much the worse for us.' " 

We are exceedingly sorry for our panic-stricken Anglo-Indian friends. 
But judging from the reports that we receive from Indian papers and maga- 
zines it seems easy to foresee that a great many more surprises and "rude 
shocks" are in waiting for the British in India. 



BOOK REVIEWS AND NOTES. 

Taoisme: tome I^ Le canon taoiste; tome II, Les Peres du systeme taoiste. 

Par Dr. Leon Wieger, S. J. Tientsin, Chung-te-tang (Agents), igii, 

1913. Pp. 336, 521. 
Dr. Wieger is a Jesuit missionary of Tientsin, China, where he has im- 
proved his opportunities to make a careful study of Chinese language, litera- 
ture and thought. Besides text-books in the Chinese language and a large 
volume on Chinese folk-lore, he has written a summary of Chinese history 
from the beginning to 1905, a volume of 2173 pages including the Chinese 
text. He has also done valuable work of high scholarship in preparing a 
series of philosophical texts which he intends to comprise a summary of 
Chinese philosophical ideas from the beginning of their literature until the 
present. He has completed the study of Confucianism in an illustrated volume 
of 550 pages. His work on Chinese Buddhism and Taoism is not yet complete 
though two large volumes of each of these are finished. The introductory 
volume on Chinese Buddhism treats of monasticism and the second, which 



768 THE OPEN COURT. 

comes from the press almost sinniltaneously with tliis number of The Open 
Court, treats of the Chinese lives of the Buddha. 

The volumes of Dr. Wiegcr's in which we are most interested are those 
on Taoism. The first of these, entitled Le Canon taoiste, is a very complete 
bibliography of Taoist literature consisting first of an index of the Taoist 
Tripitaka, the collection of sacred literature made by the monks in the sixteenth 
century, the "patrology," as Dr. Wieger prefers to call it, rather than the more 
usual but less exact "canon" ; then follows an index of the official or private 
lists of Taoist writings prepared by the laity at various times from the first 
to the seventeenth centuries. These two indexes exhaust Taoist bibliography. 
Before entering upon these bibliographical details, Dr. Wieger thinks it well 
to sum up concisely the principal features of the evolution of Taoist doctrine 
and history in order especially to explain the connection between the appar- 
ently disparate elements of Taoist patrology, its arrangement, its divisions, 
its terminology, etc. A translation of the doctrinal portion of this introduction 
is given on another page of this issue, accompanied by a reproduction of the 
cover illustration of the book. Dr. Wieger's second volume (1913) contains 
text and French translation of the extant works of the three Taoist fathers, 
Lao-tze, Lieh-tze and Chwang-tze. All have the same message to proclaim, 
the two latter simply developing the teachings of Lao-tze to which they under- 
took to convert Emperor Huang-ti, the founder of the Chinese empire. The 
book contains a subject index and an index of names. 9 



Der Text des neuen Testaments in seiner altesten erreichbaren Text- 
GESTALT. Gottingen : Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. 
This work on the text of the New Testament in its oldest attainable form 
has recently been finished after a labor of sixteen years conducted by Dr. H. 
von Soden, of Berlin LTniversity, supported by forty-four collaborators. It 
was made possible through the liberality of an interested patroness, Miss Elise 
Konigs. About 165 manuscript codices containing the gospels and aposfolos, 
A e., the rest of the New Testament writings, 1240 gospel codices, 244 aposfolos 
codices, besides 170 gospel- 40 aposfolos-, and 40 apocalyse-commentary co- 
dices with text were collated and examined. The last volume (the preceding 
volumes giving the investigation, prolegomena, etc.) of this work contains the 
text of the New Testament on the upper half of each page, while on the lower 
half the various reading are classed in three groups, the first taking in the 
textual problems not yet definitely solved, the second, defending substantially 
Von Soden's text-form, the third giving the variants occasioned accidentally 
by transcription. This volume makes it possible to get as near as can be to 
the first text of the New Testament writers, and also to check the oldest text 
on the principles laid down by Von Soden, so that it is no longer necessary to 
go through thick and thin with the Vaticanus, Sinaiticus and Alexandrinus, 
the infallible authorities thus far. This brief resume is based on a comprehen- 
sive review in the Profesfantenblatt (Berlin) of September 24, which fails to 
give the price, the total number of volumes, or whether the last volume can 
be obtained separately. A. Kampmeier. 



THE OPEN COURT 



A MONTHLY MAGAZINE 



VOLUME XXVII 



CHICAGO 

THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING COMPANY 

1913 



COPYRIGHT BY 

The Open Court Publishing Ca 
1913 



INDEX TO VOLUME XXVII. 

ARTICLES AND AUTHORS. 

PAGE 

Abbott, David P. The Spirit Portrait Mystery 221 

Abbott, David P., the Solver of Mystery. Paul Carus 254 

Accident that Led to a Notable Discovery. Philip E. B. Jourdain 39 

Albania. Paul Carus 65 

Alviella, Count Goblet D'. Religion of Biology 257 

Amerika-Institut at Berlin, The 575 

Amulets, Prehellenic. Paul Carus 511 

Apollos, the Disciples at Ephesus and Dr. W. B. Smith's Theory. A. 

Kampmeier 683 

Ararat, To the Summit of Mount. Edgar J. Banks 398 

Artistic Observation, Evolution of. Paul Carus 17 

Aryan Movement, A Great. Bhai Parmanand 41 

Bacon, The Left-Handed. Nathan Haskell Dole 152 

Balaam Among the Historicists, A. William Benjamin Smith 383 

Banks, Edgar J. To the Summit of Mount Ararat 398 

Bebel, August, The Life of 446 

Bergmann, Ernst. The Significance of La Mettrie and Pertinent Materials 411 

Bible as a Law Book. Charles S. Lobingier 738 

Biology, Religion of. Count Goblet D'Alviella 257 

Boring, C. O. Massaquoi and the Republic of Liberia 162 

Boscawen, W. St. Chad. The Egyptian Element in the Birth Stories of 

the Gospels 129 

Bourne, Randolph S. Stoicism 364 

Buddhism, The Docetic Heresy in. Paul Carus 382 

Buddhism, The Nichiren Sect of. T. J. Kinvabara 289 

Butler, Samuel, Some Aspects of. M. Jourdain 599 

Carus, Paul 

Abbott, David P., The Solver of Mystery 254 

Albania 65 

Allegorical Mysteries in Primitive Christianity 575 

Amerika-Institut at Berlin 575 

Ass-Headed Deity '. 574 

Christ, The Portrayal of 705 

Cicada an Emblem of Immortality in China 91 

Civic Clubs in France 509 

Confucius, Poems of 733 



iv THE OPEN COURT. 

PA6B 

Carus, Paul (Con.) 

Deussen's Recollections of Nietzsche 6i6 

Docetic Heresy in Buddhism 382 

Evolution in Artistic Observation I7 

Greek Art in India • 610 

International Complications 54^ 

International Institute of China 562 

Joseph and Asenath ; A Novel of the Early Christian Centuries 509 

Kwan Yon Pictures and Their Artists 202 

Lao-Tze by Chou Fang 124 

Moresnet, the Smallest Republic in the World 743 

Mother Goddess, The 641 

Names of Nations in Chinese 761 

Omar Khayyam and the Transiency of Life 680 

*" ''Orient and Occident 636 

■' ' Panama Canal Question 442 

fcy Pope of Taoism 573 

'^^- Prehellenic Amulets SH 

'- Preying Mantis (Poem) '. . 61 

Schiller's Skull . 444 

Shakespeare Documents . .......' IS6 

Sphinx, The 169 

Spirituality of the Occident • • • 316 

Truth vs. Illusion 330 

Venus of Milo, The 5^3 

Chamberlain, Alexander F. Some Interesting Phases of the Contact of 

Races Individually and en masse 25 

Chang T'ien She. An Exposition of Taoism 545 

Chatley, Herbert. Possession and the Stability of Personality 438 

China, The Dragon of. Churchill Ripley 461 

China, The International Institute of. Paul Carus : 562 

Chinese Battle of the Fishes, The. Berthold Laufer 378 

Chinese Folklore, The Praying Mantis in. Berthold Laufer 57 

GhTnese, Names of Nations in. Paul Carus 761 

Christ, Portrayal of. Paul Carus 705 

Christ, Tammuz and Pan. Further Notes on a Typical Case of Myth- 
Transference. Wilfred R. Schoff 449 

Christianity, Allegorical Mysteries in Primitive. Paul Carus 575 

Christianity and the Nichiren Sect of Buddhism. Ernest W. Clement ... 317 

Christianity, Omar Khayyam and. Walter C. Green 656 

Church, The Call of Science to the. H. E. Jordan 274 

Cicada an Emblem of Immortality, The. Paul Carus 91 

Citizen in a Free Country, On the Arduousness of Being a. Ezra B. Crooks 215 

Civic Clubs in France 509 

Clement, Ernest W. Christianity and the Nichiren Sect of Buddhism . . 317 

Cobb, Stanwood. The Spirituality of the East and the West 302 

Confucius, Poems of (Translations in verse). Paul Carus 733 

Contact of Races Individually and en masse, Some Interesting Phases of 

"' the. Alexander F. Chamberlain ......" 25 

Criminology. Arthur MacDonald 383 



INDEX. V 

PAGE 

Crooks, Ezra B. On the Arduousness of Being a Citizen in a Free Coun- 
try 215 

Currents of Thought in the Orient. B. K. Roy 638, 702, 765 

Darwin, Sir George : A Biographical Sketch. Philip E. B. Jourdain 193 

Darwin, Sir George, Note on. Philip E. B. Jourdain 572 

Deity, An Ass-Headed. Paul Carus 574 

Delphi, The Chasm at. A. Kampmeier 61 

Deussen's Recollections of Nietzsche. Paul Carus 616 

Dole, Nathan Haskell. The Left-Handed Bacon 152 

Dragon of China, The. Churchill Ripley 461 

Egyptian Element in the Birth Stories of the Gospels, The. W. St. Chad 

Boscawen 129 

Egyptian Ushabtiu ; The Quaint Solution of an Old Problem. George 

H. Richardson 497 

Evolution of Artistic Observation. Paul Carus 17 

Faust, Herder as. Giinther Jacoby 98 

Fourth Dimension, The. Hyland Clair Kirk 747 

Fritsch, H. Samuel. True Prayer (Poem) 508 

Goddess, The Mother. Paul Carus 641 

Gospel of Illusion — Beyond Truth. F. W. Orde Ward 321 

Greek Art in India. Paul Carus 610 

Green, Walter C. Omar Khayyam and Christianity 656 

Hayward, Percival. The Parable of the Rich Man and the Man who Had 

Only Riches 510 

Herder as Faust. Giinther Jacoby 98 

Historicists, A Balaam Among the. William Benjamin Smith 383 

Historicists, Ignatius vs. the. William Benjamin Smith 351 

Illusion, Gospel of, — Beyond Truth. F. W. Orde Ward 321 

Illusion, Truth, vs. Paul Carus 330 

Immortality in China, The Cicada an Emblem of. Paul Carus 91 

India, Greek Art in. Paul Carus 610 

International Complications. Paul Carus 548 

International Institute of China. Paul Carus 562 

Jacoby, Giinther. Herder as Faust 98 

Japan, Songs of. Tr. by Arthur Lloyd 120, 121, 177 

John the Baptist, Did he Exist ? A. Kampmeier 433 

Jones, H. Bedford. A Breath from Nirvana (Poem) 444 

Jordan, H. E. The Call of Science to the Church 274 

Joseph and Asenath. Bernhard Pick 467 

Joseph and Asenath ; A Novel of the Early Christian Centuries 509 

Jourdain, M. Some Aspects of Samuel Butler 599 

Jourdain, Philip E. B. An Accident that Led to a Notable Discovery, 39 ; 
Note on Sir George Darwin, 572 ; Sir George Darwin : A Biographical 
Sketch, 193; Tales with Philosophical Morals, 310. 
Kampmeier, A. Apollos, the Disciples at Ephesus and Dr. W. B. Smith's 
Theory, 683 ; The Chasm at Delphi, 61 ; The Cheating of the Devil 
According to Paul and the Docetists, 568; Did John the Baptist Exist? 
433 ; The Pre-Christian Nasareans, 84. 
Kinvabara, T. J. The Nichiren Sect of Buddhism, 289; Nichiren Tradi- 
tion in Pictures, 334. 'joiirFl 



VI THE OPEN COURT. 

PACK 

Kirk, Hyland Clair. The Fourth Diemnsion 747 

Kwan Yon Pictures and Their Artists. Paul Carus 202 

La Mettrie, The Significance of, and Pertinent Materials. Ernst Berg- 

mann 411 

Lao-Tze by Chou Fang 124 

Larkin, Edgar Lucien. Visit of Mr. Selbit at the Lowe Observatory .... 254 
Laufer, Berthold. The Chinese Battle of the Fishes, 378; The Praying 
Mantis in Chinese Folklore, 57. 

Law Book, The Bible as a. Charles S. Lobingier 738 

Liberia, Massaquoi and the Republic of. C. O. Boring 162 

Life, Omar Khayyam and the Transiency of. Paul Carus 680 

Lloyd, Arthur (Tr.). Songs of Japan : Miscellaneous Verses, 120; Poems 
by Soma Gyofu, 121 ; Poems of Madame Saisho Absuko, 177. 

Lobingier, Charles S. The Bible as a Law Book 738 

Loofs, Professor, on "What is the Truth About Jesus?" William Ben- 
jamin Smith 689 

Lowe Observatory, Visit of Mr. Selbit at the. Edgar Lucien Larkin .... 254 

MacDonald, Arthur. Criminology 383 

Mach, Ernst. Memory, Reproduction and Association I 

Mantis in Chinese Folklore, The Praying. Berthold Laufer 57 

Mantis, The Preying ( Poem) . Paul Carus 61 

Massaquoi and tlie Republic of Liberia. C. O. Boring 162 

Memory, Reproduction and Association. Ernst Mach I 

Moral Concord, The. Henri Poincare 606 

Moresnet, the Smallest Republic in the World. Paul Carus 743 

Names of Nations in Chinese. Paul Carus 761 

Nasareans, the Pre-Christian . A. Kampmeier 85 

Nazarenes, The Pre-Christian. William Benjamin Smith 559 

Nichiren Sect of Buddhism, The. T. J. Kinvabara 289 

Nichiren Sect of Buddhism, Christianity and the. Ernest W. Clement . . 317 

Nichiren Tradition in Pictures. T. J. Kinvabara 334 

Nietzsche, Deussen's Recollections of. Paul Carus 616 

Nirvana, A Breath from (Poem). H. Bedford Jones 444 

Occident, Orient and. Paul Carus 636 

Occident, The Spirituality of the. Paul Carus 316 

Omar Khayyam and Christianity. Walter C. Green 656 

Omar Khayyam and the Transiency of Life. Paul Carus 680 

Orient and Occident. Paul Carus 636 

Orient and World Peace, The. Basanta Koomar Roy 620 

Orient, Currents of Thought in the. B. K. Roy : 638, 702, 765 

Pan and Christ, Tammuz. Further Notes on a Typical Case of Myth- 
Transference. Wilfred H. Schoff 449 

Panama Canal Question, The. Paul Carus 442 

Parable of the Rich Man and the Man who Had Only Riches. Percival 

Hayward Sio 

Parmanand, Bhai. A Great Aryan Movement 41 

Paul and the Docetists, The Cheating of the Devil According to. A. 

Kampmeier - S68 

Personality, Possession and the Stability of. Herbert Chatley 438 

Philosophical Morals, Tales with. Philip E. B. Jourdain 310 



INDEX. vii 

PAGE 

Pick, Bernhard. Joseph and Asenath 467 

Poincare, Henri. The Moral Concord 606 

Prayer, True ( Poem) . H. Samuel Fritsch 508 

Primitive Ways of Thinking with Special Reference to Negation and Clas- 
sification. Josiah Royce 577 

Races Individually and en masse, Some Interesting Phases of the Contact 

of. Alexander F. Chamberlain 25 

Raspail, Julien. The Mystery Surrounding the Death of Rousseau 140 

Religion of Biology. Count Goblet D'Alviella 257 

Richardson, George H. Egyptian Ushabtiu ; The Quaint Solution of an Old 

Problem 497 

Ripley, Churchill. The Dragon of China 461 

Rousseau, The Mystery Surrounding the Death of. Julien Raspail 140 

Ro)^ Basanta Koomar. Currents of Thought in the Orient, 638, 702, 765; 
The Orient and World Peace, 620 ; Rabindranath Tagore, India's 
Greatest Living Poet, 385. 
Royce, Josiah. Primitive Ways of Thinking with Special Reference to 

Negation and Classification 577 

Schiller's Skull. Paul Carus 444 

Schoff, Wilfred R. Tammuz, Pan and Christ. Further Notes on a Typ- 
ical Case of Myth-Transference 449 

Science to the Church, The Call of. H. E. Jordan 274 

Shakespeare Documents. Paul Carus 156 

Smallest Republic in the World (Moresnet). Paul Carus 743 

Smith, William Benjamin. A Balaam Among the Historicists, 383; Pre- 
Christian Nazarenes, 559; Professor Loofs on "What is the Truth 
About Jesus?" 689; Saint Ignatius vs. The Historicists, 351. 

Sphinx, The. Paul Carus 169 

Spirit Portrait Mystery, The. David P. Abbott 221 

Spirituality of the East and the West. Stanwood Cobb 302 

Spirituality of the Occident, The. Paul Carus 316 

Stoicism. Randolph S. Bourne 364 

Tagore, Rabindranath, India's Greatest Living Poet. B. K. Roy 385 

Tammuz, Pan and Christ. Further Notes on a Typical Case of Myth- 
Transference. Wilfred R. Schoff 449 

Taoism, An Exposition of. Chang T'ien She 545 

Taoism, The Pope of 573 

Taoist Doctrines, The Evolution of. Leon Wieger 724 

Truth vs. Illusion. Paul Carus 330 

Truth-Speaking: The Fact Versus the Impression. Cora Lenore Williams 372 

Venus of Milo, The. Paul Carus 513 

Ward, F. W. Orde. The Gospel of Illusion — Beyond Truth 321 

Wieger, Leon. The Evolution of Taoist Doctrines 724 

Williams, Cora Lenore. Truth-Speaking : The Fact Versus the Impression 372 

BOOK REVIEWS AND NOTES. 

Bebel, August. My Life 446 

Buchanan, George D. Biyonde Cifrun 319 

De Bary, Richard. A New Rome 62 



VIU THE OPEN COURT. 

PAGE 

Deshumbert, Marius. Morale fondee sur les lois de la nature 448 

Emerson, C. H. Ellii, The Oracle of the Other Self 256 

Hocking, William Ernest. The Meaning of God in Human Experience . . 511 

Jones, Samuel I. Mathematical Wrinkles 192 

King, F. H. Farmers of Forty Centuries, or Permanent Agriculture in 

China, Korea and Japan 128 

Larkin, Edgar Lucien. Within the Mind Maze 63 

Mach, Ernst. Erinnerungen einer Erzieherin 125 

Miiller, Wilhelm. Das religiose Leben in Amerika 64 

Sarkar, Benoy Kumar. The Science of History and the Hope of Mankind 192 

Sarton, George, in Ciel et terre 320 

Soden, H. von et al. Der Text des neuen Testaments in seiner altesten 

erreichbaren Textgestalt 768 

Sprague, Homer B. The Book of Job 512 

Strode, Muriel. My Little Book of Life 127 

Wakemann, Thaddeus Burr, Addresses of '. 640 

Washington, Wm. de Hertburn. Progress and Prosperity 576 

Wieger, Leon. Taoisme 767 

Willy, John. The Story of Asenath, Daughter of Potipherah, High Priest 

of On 640 



THE 



Mechanistic Principle 



AND THE 



Non-Mechanical 



An Inquiry Into Fundamentals With Extracts From 
Representatives of Either Side 



By PAUL CARUS 



Pp. 128 



CLOTH $1.00 



What the Book Contains: 



Mechanicalism and Teleol- 
ogy — A Contrast 

Motion and Movement 

The Will 

The Non-Mechanical 

Time and Space 

Causality 

The Significance of Form 

The Universal and the 
Particular 

Mark Twain's Philosophy 

What Is Man 

The Mind an Independent 
Machine 

Spiritual Decision 

All Credit Belongs to God 



La Mettrie's View of Man 

as a Machine 
La Place Believes in Abso- 
lute Determinism 
Cause and Effect "Do Not 

Even Touch Hands" 
The Spirit in the Wheels 
The Mechanism of the 

Universe as Seen by 

a Theist 
The Machinery of Life 
In the New View there is 

no Room for "God" 
The Melancholy Teaching 

of Today 



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THE 

Principle of Relativity 

in the Light of the 

Philosophy of Science 



By PAUL CARUS 



Pp. 109 CLOTH $1.00 

What the Book Contains: 



On the Absolute 
Tricks of Cognition 
Comstock on Relativity 
The A Priori 
On Absolute Motion 
Absolute Space 
Ernst Mach 
Objectivity 
Primary Concepts 



Some Physical Problems 
of Relativity 

The Principle of Relativity 
as a Phase in the De- 
velopment of Science. 

Appendix: The Rev. James 
Bradley on the Motion 
of Fixed Stars. 



Dr. Carus here gives the history of the growth of this theory, his belief in its 
transitory character, its significance in present day physics, and the views of its 
most prominent representatives. The appendix contains a letter addressed to the 
astronomer Dr. Edmond Halley in 1727 by Prof. James Bradley of Oxford, the 
forerunner of the relativity physicists of today. 

For a compendium of Dr. Carus's philosophical views read his 

Philosophy as a Science 

{sent free on application) 

which may be had also in German and French translations. 



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The investigations of Ewald Hering, Professor of Psychology at the University 
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THE ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA, Vol. XIX, page 22, says:| 

"If the ingenious speculations of Hering should finally pass into demonstrated truth, we should 
be brought face to face with the fact that the mere act of building up or the mere act of breaking 
down affects the condition of protoplasm in other ways than the one which has hitherto been con- 
sidered If Hering's conception be a true one (and the arguments in favor of it. if 

not wholly conclusive, are at least serious), it is probable that future inquiry may lay the foundation 
of a new molecular physiology."— Professor Michael Foster, Cambridge University. 



Books on Memory and Related Subjects: 

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Psychology of the Nervous System, by Paul Carus. Boards 30c ' 

The Soul of Man. An investigation of the facts of Physiological 
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Contributions to the Analysis of the Sensations, by Ernst 

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A Mechanico-Physiological Theory of Organic Evolution, by 

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Ethical Objectivity in the Light of Social Psychology 

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A History of 
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This work sets forth, in a style that the non-mathematical will have 
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